Search                        Top                                  Index
HELP IM                                             Andrew Law, May 1987
                                          Revised Tom Khabaza, June 1990

    <ENTER> im
    <ENTER> im filename

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Introduction
  2   Invoking Immediate Mode
  3   Leaving Immediate Mode
      3.1   Leaving the file
      3.2   Aborting Immediate Mode
  4   Ved Behaviour
  5   Control (Ctrl) & <ESC> Characters
  6   vedcrinteractive
  7   Subsystems
      7.1   The Pop Subsystem
      7.2   The Lisp Subsystem
      7.3   The Prolog Subsystem
  8   Miscellaneous
  9   Associated Documentation

1  Introduction

Immediate mode provides a convenient mode of interaction with a Poplog
language in the Ved buffer, as an alternative to "Load Marked Range"
(see HELP * LMR).

E.g. in "immediate mode", Pop-11, Prolog or Lisp commands or procedure
definitions may be typed in and will be evaluated "immediately", with
program output appended to the Ved buffer.

Ved edit commands may be given as usual (marking ranges, moving text,
cursor movements, moving between files, etc.), apart from minor changes.

The most important change is that every time <RETURN> is pressed, the
current line is copied to the end of the buffer (unless it is already
the last line) and handed to the current compiler (which will depend on
the file type.) So the <RETURN> key can not be used to break a line of
text. This "immediate mode" behaviour can be switched on or off (whether
in immediate mode or not) by the procedure * ved_switchmode_im which is
normally mapped to the key sequence:

    <ESC> Ctrl-D

In an immediate mode file, whenever the compiler is ready for input, it
will display, at the end of the Ved buffer, the prompt associated with
the compiler in question, e.g.:

    ': '  - for Pop-11,
    '?- ' - for Prolog
    '== ' - for Lisp.

However, input may be taken from any line, not just the line with the

The normal load marked range (* LMR) facility is still available,
except that it now copies the marked range to the end of the buffer
before it is handed to the compiler. This enables the buffer to serve
as a "log" of interaction with the compiler.

MISHAPS occur as they would outside the editor.

This facility is available for Pop-11, Lisp and Prolog.

There is also a version for "immediate mode" interaction through Ved with
the SHELL in Unix or DCL in VMS.

(See (on Unix) HELP * IMCSH, * IMSH, (on VMS) HELP * IMDCL)

2  Invoking Immediate Mode

Immediate mode can be invoked from inside or outside Ved when in the
Pop-11, Lisp or Prolog subsystem.

If the call to immediate mode is given no arguments e.g.: in Lisp

    == @im <RETURN>

or in Pop-11

    :  im <RETURN>

or in Prolog

    ?-  im <RETURN>

or in Ved

    <ENTER> im

immediate mode will be invoked with a Pop-11 compiler in a file called
"output.p". It can be given arguments so that it can be invoked in a
named file, e.g.:

    <ENTER> im filename

This will invoke immediate mode with a Pop-11 compiler in a file called
filename. The type of compiler invoked is determined by the file
extension (see below).

You can recognise immediate mode by an "I" inserted in the command line


   -I--| 33|- im temp (EDITING: im) ------------------------------

3  Leaving Immediate Mode

3.1  Leaving the file
The file can be quit or left temporarily in the standard way, e.g:

    <ENTER> q
    <ENTER> wq
    <ENTER> x
    <ESC> x
    <ESC> q

(The last two may not work for some Ved terminal mappings).

3.2  Aborting Immediate Mode
You may choose to stay in the file but stop the immediate compilation,
this can be done by doing a "bye" to the Pop-11 prompt, e.g.:

    : bye

or a more general command, which works for all uses of immediate mode,
with any language:

    <ENTER> end_im

This invokes the procedure * ved_end_im, which terminates immediate mode
compilation by passing * termin to the compiler. Ved returns to its
normal editing mode after <ENTER> end_im has been called.

4  Ved Behaviour

Most of Ved's facilities work in immediate mode. You can mark, move
copy and delete text, you can swap between files, suspend Ved, move the
cursor etc. However, the <RETURN> key is changed in the manner described

One advantage of this is that if programs run in immediate mode request
input, then it is possible to move to another file, do some calculation,
examine a help file, etc. and then return to the interactive file and
type in the input. NB: this facility also works with programs run using

The presence of immediate mode prompts in a file can cause undesirable
side-effects in editing or printing.  These problems can be overcome
using the command

    <ENTER> noprompts

which effectively turns immediate mode prompts into ordinary text.
See HELP * ved_noprompts.

5  Control (Ctrl) & <ESC> Characters

The following are set up in the default Ved key mapping, but may be
altered for some terminal configurations:

<ESC> Ctrl-Z
    invokes the procedure ved_end_im to send termin to the compiler
    (rather like typing the EOF character at top level).

        If you are running Poplog on a standard Unix platform, this key
        sequence will cause Poplog to be suspended.
        Please use <ENTER> end_im instead.

<ESC> Ctrl-D
    invokes the procedure ved_switchmode_im, which alters value of
    the variable vedcrinteractive, described in the next section.

6  vedcrinteractive

This boolean variable is used to control the effect of pressing the
<RETURN> key in an immediate mode file. If the value is:

        then <RETURN> will not send current line for compilation:
        Ved has returned to compiling text only via ved_lmr (or
        equivalent) to load whole marked range.

        then <RETURN> will send current line for compilation.

It is most conveniently altered by using the ved_switchmode_im
described above.

7  Subsystems

It is possible to invoke a Lisp, Prolog,  Pop-11 or ML compiler in
immediate mode. The compiler invoked is determined by what subsystem you
are in and what file extensions you use. The following indicates what
compiler will normally be invoked with each subsystem/file extension

7.1  The Pop Subsystem
If only Pop-11 is available in the current process you can normally only
invoke the Pop-11 compiler from Pop-11.

7.2  The Lisp Subsystem
You can invoke the Lisp compiler by doing

    == @im filename.lsp

or  in Ved

    <ENTER> im filename.lsp

You can invoke the Pop-11 compiler by any call to immediate mode without
a ".lsp" file extension. You can not invoke the Prolog compiler.

7.3  The Prolog Subsystem
You can invoke the Prolog compiler by doing

    ?- im


    <ENTER> im

You can invoke the Pop-11 compiler by any other call to immediate mode
without a ".pl" extension. You can not invoke the Lisp compiler.

8  Miscellaneous

A call of


will invoke immediate mode at the end of the current file.

The prompts produced by immediate mode contain a special character at
the end (* vvedpromptchar, which displays as a space), and can cause
problems. You may get (Ved) error messages saying "INSIDE PROMPT" if you
try to insert or delete characters inside the prompt.

9  Associated Documentation

    General introduction to use of marked ranges

    Information on loading marked range

    CSHELL immediate mode (Unix only)

    SHELL  immediate mode (Unix only)

    DCL    immediate mode (VMS only)

    Overview of Poplog Input/Output behaviour

    Overview of Ved facilities

HELP * ved_noprompts
    Command to remove prompt character from file

For more details on immediate mode (and the Ved-buffer devices on which
it is based), see Ved-Buffer Devices and Immediate Mode in

--- C.all/help/im
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1992. All rights reserved.