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REF VEDCOMMS                                              Dan Perri 1989
                                            Updated John Gibson Dec 1996

     COPYRIGHT University of Sussex 1996. All Rights Reserved.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<        VED COMMAND          >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<        PROCEDURES           >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

This REF file describes those Ved commands which are available from  the
status (command), line, normally referred to as Ved <ENTER> commands.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Introduction

  2   File Management Commands
      2.1   Accessing Files
      2.2   Leaving Files
      2.3   Listing and Deleting Files and Directories
      2.4   Miscellaneous

  3   Moving Around a File

  4   Search and Substitution Commands
      4.1   Search and Substitute Commands

  5   Formatting Commands
      5.1   Justification Commands
      5.2   Moving Lines of Text
      5.3   Moving Blocks of Text
      5.4   Moving the Cursor

  6   Indexing Facilities

  7   Controlling the Marked Range Markers

  8   Text Editor Commands
      8.1   Deletion and Retrieval Commands
      8.2   Copying (Transcribing) and Moving Text
      8.3   Changing Case
      8.4   Changing Character Attributes
      8.5   Current Character
      8.6   Setting a Text Action
      8.7   Miscellaneous

  9   Printing Commands

 10   Program File Commands
      10.1  Aids to Programming
      10.2  Compilation Commands
      10.3  Program Editing Commands
      10.4  Moving Around and Searching Program Files
      10.5  Miscellaneous

 11   Immediate Mode Commands

 12   Operating System Interaction Commands
      12.1  UNIX Interaction Commands
      12.2  Commands to Spawn Sub-Processes

 13   Altering Your Ved Environment
      13.1  Finding Out About Your Environment
      13.2  Setting Text Boundaries
      13.3  Setting Variable Values
      13.4  Miscellaneous

 14   Mail in Ved

 15   Time Commands

 16   Multiple Commands on One Line

 17   Miscellaneous Commands

 18   Information on Tailoring Ved
      18.1  Command Line and Argument Processing
      18.2  Analysing the Argument String

1  Introduction

Most Ved <ENTER> commands are implemented as Pop-11 procedures with  the
word "ved_"  prefixed  to the  command  name,  and it  is  these  Pop-11
procedure names which are documented here. Thus the command

        <ENTER> ved

is described below under


and so on. There are a few <ENTER> commands which aren't implemented  in
this way, because they  use different rules  for separating the  command
name from  any  following  arguments. These  are  mainly  commands  with
symbolic (rather  than alphabetic)  names, such  as the  various  search
commands. For consistency, such commands are still documented here as if
the corresponding  procedures  did  exist, but  are  identified  by  the
special label

        [ pseudo procedure ]

For example, the search command

        <ENTER> /

is described by the entry for ved_/.

For a full description  of the way Ved  processes the command line,  see

Many command procedures  are defined in  autoloadable libraries,  mostly
from the directory $popvedlib,  and can be  inspected with SHOWLIB.  You
can add your own commands by defining suitable "ved_" procedures, either
in your "vedinit.p"  file or  in a private  autoloadable directory:  see
HELP * AUTOLOAD. The file REF * VEDPROCS describes Ved procedures useful
for building new commands.

Some <ENTER> commands  are additionally  mapped onto  key bindings:  see

See also:

   HELP * VED           For an overview of Ved facilities
   HELP * UNDO          For how to undo deletions
   REF * DOCUMENTATION  (Online documentation)
   REF * VEDPROCS       (Procedures used to implement Ved)
   REF * VEDTERMINALS   (Screen control and key mappings)
   REF * VEDVARS        (Global variables used by Ved)
   REF * VEDSEARCH      (Search and substitution in Ved)

2  File Management Commands

These commands give  access to files  on disc, and  enable you to  write
current files to disc.

      2.1   Accessing Files
      2.2   Leaving Files
      2.3   Listing and Deleting Files and Directories
      2.4   Miscellaneous

2.1  Accessing Files
ved_name [ -w ] [ name ]                                     [procedure]
        With no argument, shows the  vedpathname of the current file  on
        the status line.

        If given name only, changes the  name of the current file to  be
        name. This  causes  * vedveddefaults  to  be  run,  as  well  as
        vedsetfiletypes(vedfiletypes), so that the global variables  are
        reinitialised correctly for the new name.

        The -w flag changes the  current file into a (pseudo-file)  work
        buffer  with   vedfileprops   "workbuff"  (see   Real-File   and
        Pseudo-File Buffers in REF * VEDPROCS).  The name of the  buffer
        will be 'workbuff wname' where wname is name if supplied, or the
        current vedpathname otherwise. See also * ved_work below.

ved_pved filename [ filename ... ]                           [procedure]
        Call ved_ved  in "protected"  mode, i.e.  with vedwriteable  set
        false to prevent accidental erasure.

ved_qved filename [ filename ... ]                           [procedure]
        Quit  current  file  and  start   editing  new  one.  Also   see

ved_r [ N ] filename                                         [procedure]
        Read the contents of filename into the current buffer, using the
        same strategy for locating the file as ved_ved.

        The optional argument  N specifies the  line number below  which
        the file contents should be inserted, with 0 meaning the top  of
        the buffer. The default value for N is the current line number.

ved_rb                                                       [procedure]
        Rotate Buffers in  Ved. Same as  <ESC> X if  there are only  two
        files being looked at. Uses current window only.

ved_rved machine filename                                    [procedure]
        Reads the file filename from the remote machine into a temporary
        Ved buffer. (UNIX only.) See also HELP * PIPEUTILS.

ved_ved [ filename ... ]                                     [procedure]
        Start or resume editing the file filename. If filename is not an
        absolute pathname, it is sought first in the current  directory,
        and then in each of the directories specified by  vedsearchlist.
        See TEACH * VED, HELP * VED, REF * VED.

        If more than one filename  is supplied, each subsequent file  is
        edited immediately after bringing up the previous one.

        If no filename is supplied, it defaults to the current value  of
        * vedvedname.

ved_work [ name ]                                            [procedure]
        Start  or  resume  editing  a  (pseudo-file)  work  buffer  (see
        Real-File  and  Pseudo-File  Buffers  in  REF * VEDPROCS).  Such
        buffers have vedfileprops set to "workbuff".

        The name  of the  buffer  will be  'workbuff name',  where  name
        defaults to the current value of vedworkname if omitted.

ved_ftp ftp-spec                                             [procedure]
        (Unix Only)  Enables editing  of a  file on  a remote  host  via
        Internet FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

        The format of ftp-spec  is the same as  for an ftp URL  (Uniform
        Resource Locator, as used  by the World  Wide Web), except  that
        the leading ftp:// part is omitted. That is,


        :password may be omitted if no password is required for  access,
        or the whole  user:password@ part may  be omitted for  anonymous
        ftp. Following host,  :port may  be absent if  the standard  ftp
        port should be used.

        If present, each  cwd component  is the argument  for a  'change
        working directory' command to the ftp server, starting from  the
        default login directory of the user on the remote machine. (Thus
        the format of  a cwd  component depends on  the remote  server's
        operating system.)

        The ;type=type part  may be  omitted; if specified,  type is  an
        (upper or lowercase) letter, as follows:

                type    meaning
                ----    -------
                 A      ASCII file
                 I      Image (i.e. binary) file
                 D      Give directory listing (just filenames)
                 L      Give long directory listing

        If ;type=type  is  omitted, the  default  is `A`  when  name  is
        present, and `D` if name is omitted. (That is, a spec ending  in
        `/` will list the current directory.)

        It is important  to note  that the sequence  following the  host
        spec is not a Unix pathname. Thus

            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/pop/foo.p

        would access the file 'foo.p' in the sub-directory 'pop' of  the
        login directory  of  user  'fred', not  in  the  top-level  Unix
        directory '/pop'. To access /pop/foo.p requires

            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/%2Fpop/foo.p

        where the  syntax  %XX  means 'the  character  with  ASCII  code
        hexadecimal XX',  i.e.  %2F =  `/`.  (This syntax  can  be  used
        anywhere in  ftp-spec  to  escape any  characters  with  special

        If 'machine' were  a VMS  machine, the following  would both  be
        equivalent to the first example above:

            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/[.pop]foo.p
            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/[.pop]/foo.p


            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/[pop]foo.p
            <ENTER> ftp fred@machine/[pop]/foo.p

        are equivalent to the second.

2.2  Leaving Files
ved_bye                                                      [procedure]
        Exit Poplog, after writing any files which have been changed.

ved_q                                                        [procedure]
        Quit current file. Compare ved_rrq and ved_qand.

ved_qand command                                             [procedure]
        Quits the  current  file and  then  executes the  specified  Ved
        command command. For example, doing:

            <ENTER> qand ref lists

        Is the same as doing:

            <ENTER> qref lists

ved_qq                                                       [procedure]
        Quit from  Ved and  Poplog, returning  to the  operating  system
        shell, etc. Complains if any files have changed.

ved_qpop                                                     [procedure]
        Quit the  current  file and  exit  from  Ved to  Pop-11  or  the
        language sub-system from which Ved was invoked.

ved_rqq                                                      [procedure]
        Really Quit  from  Ved  and  Quit  from  Pop-11  without  asking

ved_rrq                                                      [procedure]
        Really Really Quit current file without asking questions.

ved_wq                                                       [procedure]
        Write current file and quit.

ved_xx                                                       [procedure]
        Write all altered files, exit from Ved, exit from Pop-11.

ved_w [ filename ]                                           [procedure]
        If filename is specified, copy the current buffer to a disk file
        called filename. Otherwise, write ALL changed files to disk.

ved_w1                                                       [procedure]
        Write only current file.

ved_wapp filename                                            [procedure]
        Write and APPend the current file to filename.

ved_wappdr filename                                          [procedure]
        Write and APPend  the marked range to filename  then Delete  the
        marked Range. See also ved_mo.

ved_wappr filename                                           [procedure]
        Write and APPend the marked Range to filename. See also ved_to.

ved_wqved filename                                           [procedure]
        Write current file, quit it, then call Ved with new filename.

ved_wr filename                                              [procedure]
        Write marked range to filename.

ved_wved filename                                            [procedure]
        Write current file, then call Ved with the new filename.

NOTE: There is also a set of quit commands such as "ved_qdoc word" which
quits the  current file  (like ved_q)  and invokes  Ved to  examine  the
online  documentation   file  named   word.   These  are   detailed   in

2.3  Listing and Deleting Files and Directories
ved_dired                                                    [procedure]
        Loosely based on EMACS  dired, this command provides  facilities
        for browsing  through  directories, examining  files,  deleting,
        copying re-naming, etc. with a minimum of typing. The -flag,  if
        present indicates action to be performed. The extra argument can
        be a  file name  or search  string. If  necessary file  name  is
        extracted from  current line in  Ved buffer.  Autoloadable user-
        defined extensions are supported.

        See HELP * DIRED, * DIRED.SHORT.

ved_qdired                                                   [procedure]
        After extracting file  name, or pattern,  from current line,  it
        quits  the   current  file   and   then  runs   ved_dired.   See
        HELP * DIRED.

ved_dir [ options ] [ filenames ]                            [procedure]
        Ved interface to the  VMS "DIR" command.  Uses the same  syntax,
        and provides the  same options as  "DIR" (because the  arguments
        options and filenames are passed directly to VMS).
        See HELP * DIR for examples.

veddirdefaults()                                    [procedure variable]
        VMS only. Called when ved_dir creates a temporary Ved buffer  in
        which to  display  a directory  listing.  Calls  vedveddefaults,
        makes the file  unwriteable, and sets  vedindentstep to 20.
        See LIB * ved_dir.

ved_ls  [ flags ] [ filenames ]                              [procedure]
        Ved interface to the  Unix "ls" command.  Uses the same  syntax,
        and recognises the  same flags  as "ls"  (because the  arguments
        flags and filenames are passed directly to Unix).
        See HELP * LS for examples.

vedlsdefaults()                                     [procedure variable]
        UNIX only. Called when ved_ls creates a temporary Ved buffer  in
        which to  display  a directory  listing.  Calls  vedveddefaults,
        makes the file unwriteable, and sets vedindentstep to 8.
        See LIB * ved_ls.

ved_purge [ filenames ]                                      [procedure]
ved_del                                                      [procedure]
        The command  ved_purge  uses  ved_ls  (on  Unix  platforms),  or
        ved_dir (on VMS platforms), to  create a directory listing,  and
        then suggests that  the user should  mark unwanted files  with a
        `*`, and then delete them, by calling ved_del followed by either
        ved_shell (Unix)  or  ved_dodcl  (VMS). See HELP * PURGE.

2.4  Miscellaneous
ved_cd directory                                             [procedure]
        Makes the named directory  the current  working directory.  With
        no argument, makes the current directory the same as your  login
        directory. See also HELP * CD.

ved_cdiff                                                    [procedure]
        Compare  two  Ved  files  ignoring  characters  in  the   string
        ved_cdiff_ignore, the default being:

           '\s\t\n\r'  -> ved_cdiff_ignore;

        Compare ved_diff. HELP * CDIFF.

ved_diff                                                     [procedure]
        Compare current file and next  file from top of stack,  starting
        at current line in each. Stops as soon as lines that differ  are
        found in the two files, and  sets the command to be  "nextsame".
        Compare ved_cdiff. HELP * DIFF.

ved_files                                                    [procedure]
        Print  out  information  about  current  files  in  the  editor.
        Indicates whether they need compiling  or writing etc. See  also
        TEACH * FILES.

ved_nextdiff                                                 [procedure]
        Like ved_diff, but  first moves down  a line in  each file.  See
        HELP * DIFF.

ved_nextsame [ integer ]                                     [procedure]
        Compares lines in the current file  with lines in the next  file
        in vedbufferlist  until two  are found  to be  the same,  within
        limits set  by ved_nextsame_limit  (default 60).  If an  integer
        argument is given  the limit  is changed, and  then the  command
        obeyed. If two identical lines are found, the current command is
        changed to be "nextdiff". See HELP * VED_NEXTSAME.

ved_pwd                                                      [procedure]
        Print current working directory on status line.

3  Moving Around a File

These commands enable a user to move directly to a place in the  current
file, specified  by line  number, feature,  or relative  to the  current

ved_number                                            [pseudo procedure]
        Move to line number, e.g. <ENTER> 99 to go to line 99.

ved_@arg                                              [pseudo procedure]
        Ved move commands. The arg  argument specifies which line to  go
        to, thus:

                  arg           go to
                  ---           -----
                    a           first line of file
                    z           last line of file
                    m           first line of marked range
                    e           end of marked range
                  integer       go to line number integer
                  +integer      go forward by integer lines
                  -integer      go back by integer lines

        (Note  that  <ENTER> @   actually  invokes  the   user-definable
        procedure  ved_moveto,  which  by  default  provides  the  above

ved_cps                                                      [procedure]
        Clear position  stack.  Previously  stacked  positions  will  be

ved_moveto where                                             [procedure]
        Moves to the place in the file specified by the where  argument,
        which can take the following values:

           where    Meaning
           -----    -------
             a      Start of file
             z      End of file
             m      Start of marked range
             e      End of marked range
            +N      Forward N lines
            -N      Backward N lines
             N      Line N

ved_cols                                                     [procedure]
        Causes the current column number  to be displayed on the  status
        line, instead of  the current line  number (affects the  current
        file  only).  If  called  again,  the  line  number  display  is
        restored,  i.e.  calling  it  toggles  the  current  mode.  Uses
        * vedstatusshowcols.

ved_xdn                                                      [procedure]
        Scroll other window down. Also done by <ESC> <LF> buttons.

ved_xup                                                      [procedure]
        Scroll other window up. Also done by <ESC> <BS> buttons.

4  Search and Substitution Commands

See REF * VEDSEARCH for full details of the following search commands:

    * ved_/      * ved_"          * ved_\         * ved_`
    * ved_search * ved_backsearch * ved_re_search * ved_re_backsearch
    * ved_ss     * ved_ww

4.1  Search and Substitute Commands
See REF * VEDSEARCH  for  full  details of  the  following  substitution

    * ved_gs     * ved_gsr     * ved_gsp
    * ved_gsl    * ved_s       * ved_sgs    * ved_sgsr

5  Formatting Commands

These are commands available  from Ved to  justify, indent, or  re-align
lines of text or code within a file.

      5.1   Justification Commands
      5.2   Moving Lines of Text
      5.3   Moving Blocks of Text
      5.4   Moving the Cursor

5.1  Justification Commands
ved_fill                                                     [procedure]
        Justify marked range as if in  text file (whether it is or  not)
        See ved_j, ved_jcp, ved_jp, ved_fp.

ved_fp                                                       [procedure]
        Fill  current  paragraph  (even  if  in  a  program  file).  See

ved_gobble                                                   [procedure]
        Remove excess  spaces from  the marked  range, leaves  a  single
        space between words. Can be used to undo ved_jj.

ved_j                                                        [procedure]
        "Justify" marked range. If it's a program file runs ved_tidy  to
        indent   program   text.   Otherwise   runs   ved_fill,    which
        right-justifies  text  without  right-alignment.  See  ved_fill,
        ved_tidy. For text  files, uses  vedleftmargin, and  vedlinemax.
        for program files uses vedindentstep.

ved_jcp                                                      [procedure]
        Justify current procedure, using ved_tidy.

ved_jj                                                       [procedure]
        Fully "Justify"  marked range.  Aligns left  and right  margins,
        uses vedleftmargin, and vedlinemax.

ved_jjp                                                      [procedure]
        Fully justify current paragraph.

ved_jp                                                       [procedure]
        Justify current paragraph if text file, procedure otherwise.

ved_jrefmr [column]                                          [procedure]
        This command is used for justifying REF file identifier entries.
        It right-justifies the text in the marked range (like  * ved_jj)
        ignoring any  lines with  format-spaces and  graphic-characters.
        The left column of the justified text is specified by column. If
        column is  not  specified  a  default  of  eight  is  used.  See
        REF * REFFORM for more information on formatting REF files.

5.2  Moving Lines of Text
ved_ac                                                       [procedure]
        Centres each  line  in  marked  range  between  left  and  right

ved_al                                                       [procedure]
        Aligns first character  of each  line in marked  range with  the
        left margin.

ved_ar                                                       [procedure]
        Aligns last  character of  each line  in marked  range with  the
        right margin.

ved_centre [ string ]                                        [procedure]
        Puts string at centre of current line. If string is empty or  is
        '.', moves existing line of  text to centre. Uses  vedleftmargin
        and vedlinemax.

ved_right [ string ]                                         [procedure]
        Puts string at right of current line, as defined by  vedlinemax.
        If there's no  argument, it moves  all the text  on the  current
        line to the right.

5.3  Moving Blocks of Text
ved_bc                                                       [procedure]
        Moves the marked range left or right so that the longest line of
        the range is centred between the two margins. See HELP * FORMAT.

ved_bl N                                                     [procedure]
        Moves the  marked  range  N  characters  to the left. N defaults
        to 1.

ved_br N                                                     [procedure]
        Moves the  marked  range  N characters  to the right. N defaults
        to 1.

ved_ljmr [ integer ]                                         [procedure]
        Left Justify  Marked range,  by shifting  text in  marked  range
        integer spaces to the left. If no argument is given, it defaults
        to the current value  of vedleftmargin. If  0, then all  leading
        spaces are removed. Otherwise at most integer leading spaces are
        deleted. This preserves relative indentation. If the argument is
        a negative integer, then the marked range is shifted that number
        of spaces  to  the  right. Compare  ved_bl  and  ved_br.  ved_bl
        complains if some lines cannot be shifted left whereas  ved_ljmr
        ignores them.

5.4  Moving the Cursor
ved_mc N                                                     [procedure]
        Move N characters to right, or to left if N negative.

ved_mw N                                                     [procedure]
        Move N  words right.  Like ved_mc  but uses  vedwordright.  E.g.
        stops on ' and ";;;" .

6  Indexing Facilities

The <ENTER> newindex  command enables the  user to build  an index  to a
file, with  section  headers that  provide  direct access  to  specified

ved_g                                                        [procedure]
        Used to find information in  HELP and TEACH files provided  with
        an  index  (either   by  the   new  ved_newindex   or  the   old

ved_newindex [ sp | nosp ]                                   [procedure]
        Builds or  updates  a new-style  index  from header  lines  in a
        documentation file. The new-style index lines are recognised  by
        <ENTER> g.

        Header lines in  the file  are recognised  as one  of the  three
        types listed below,  in each  case 'underlined'  by a  following
        line starting with (at least 3) G- graphics characters (they may
        also be  'overlined' with  G- characters  as well,  but this  is

            Level   Format
            -----   ------
              1     DD text

                    where DD is one or two digits starting at column  1,

                    5  Major Heading

              2     DD.DD text

                    where DD.DD  is a  sequence of  digits  containing a
                    `.`, starting  at column  1 and  not extending  past
                    column 5, e.g.

                    5.3  Minor Heading

              3     ... text


                    ...  Minor Sub-heading

        The index  lines  constructed  for  each  of  these  types,  and
        recognised by ved_g, appear as follows:

        Col 12345678901234567890

             DD   text
                  DD.DD text
                        ... text

        where the spacing between the numeric part and the text part  is
        adjusted to produce the above alignment. E.g, the index for  the
        examples given would appear as:

              5   Major Heading
                  5.3   Minor Heading
                        ... Minor Sub-heading

        The header lines themselves are also adjusted to have a standard
        spacing between the  two parts (enabling  ved_g to search  for a
        fixed translation of any index line).

        The "underlining" of the headers  with G- characters is  assumed
        to be of  two types: (a)  full-width (extending to  at least  70
        columns), and (b) extending to less  than or equal the width  of
        the header line itself.

        Where the underline is  shorter in lines of  type (b), only  the
        the initial width(underline) characters  of the header line  are
        used as  the  index  line  (this  enables  such  lines  to  have
        additional annotation on the right which will not appear in  the
        index). Lines of type (b)  then have their underlining  adjusted
        to conform  with any  adjustments tp  the header  (as well  as a
        preceding "overlining" line if present).

        Character attributes on  the header lines  are preserved in  the
        index lines.

        The index  is constructed  either with  or without  blank  lines
        separating each level 1 index line from the preceding line. This
        is controlled  as  follows:  If  the  optional  sp  argument  is
        present, extra spacing is added; if nosp is present, spacing  is
        not added. Otherwise, the default  is to add spacing, unless  an
        existing index is being replaced, in which case the style of the
        old index is maintained.

        From Version 15+, ved_newindex also  makes each index line  be a
        text action (see Embedded  Text Actions in REF * VEDPROCS).  All
        index line characters have the  active attribute added, and  the
        command string  '(SN)g'  is  attached  to  the  first  non-space
        character on  each  line.  The  same is  done  for  the  initial
        (numeric plus spaces) part of each header line, with the command
        '(S)g;;;back to index' attached.

ved_newheading [ help|ref ] [ r ]                            [procedure]
        Make the current line a section header. See * ved_newindex for a
        description of header line formats.

        Giving the  help  argument will  cause  the lines  around  major
        headings to extend the length  of the screen (see  HELP * VEDSET
        for an  example.) Giving  the ref  argument will  produce  major
        headings like those seen  in this file.  If neither argument  is
        specified  ved_newheading  attempts  to  guess  the  appropriate

        If the optional r (for  renumber) is specified every heading  in
        the current  file is  updated  so the  major and  minor  section
        numbers are contiguous.

        The number and type of the heading used depends on the preceding
        heading.  Major  and  minor  section  numbers  are   incremented
        appropriately. If the  previous header line  started with  '...'
        (it was a sub-heading), this is inserted at the beginning of the
        current header line.

        Old style  REF  & HELP  headers  (produced by  ved_heading)  are
        automatically converted into the new style by ved_newheading.

ved_heading                                                  [procedure]
        Insert leading and trailing hyphens  to make section header  for
        old-style HELP or TEACH file.

ved_indexify                                                 [procedure]
        Adds an old-style index in form required for ved_g in a TEACH or
        HELP file.

7  Controlling the Marked Range Markers

These commands are available to manipulate the range markers.

ved_crm                                                      [procedure]
        Clear range mark. Don't alter buffer, just remove mark.

ved_mbe                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" current file from Beginning to End.

ved_mbf                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" from beginning of file.

ved_mbp                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" from beginning of procedure.

ved_mcp                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" whole of current procedure.

ved_mef                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" to end of file.

ved_mep                                                      [procedure]
        "Mark" to end of current procedure.

ved_mark range_name                                          [procedure]
        Calls * ved_mark_named_range with


        as argument, to mark the range named by range_name.

8  Text Editor Commands

These are all of  the text editor facilities,  not related to search  or
justification of text. (See separate  sections for information on  those
facilities.) All these commands can also be used on program files.

      8.1   Deletion and Retrieval Commands
      8.2   Copying (Transcribing) and Moving Text
      8.3   Changing Case
      8.4   Changing Character Attributes
      8.5   Current Character
      8.6   Setting a Text Action
      8.7   Miscellaneous

8.1  Deletion and Retrieval Commands
ved_clear                                                    [procedure]
        Delete  everything  from the current  file.  Can be retrieved by

ved_cut                                                      [procedure]
        Removes the text between the two most recently saved  ("pushed")
        positions   on   vedpositionstack,   to   a   temporary   buffer
        (vvedcut_dump),  from   where  it   can  be   recovered   (using
        ved_splice), repeatedly if necessary.

ved_d                                                        [procedure]
        Delete marked range,  and copy into  vveddump. Compare  ved_cut.
        Data can  be  retrieved from  vveddump  and inserted  after  the
        cursor, using ved_y, repeatedly if necessary.

ved_da                                                       [procedure]
        Like ved_d, but append to vveddump.

ved_dc [ N ]                                                 [procedure]
        With no argument, deletes the character under the cursor.  Given
        an integer  N, deletes  the N  characters to  the right  of  the
        cursor. If N is negative, the  abs(N) characters to the left  of
        the cursor are deleted.

ved_de                                                       [procedure]
        Delete from  current cursor  position to  End of  line (same  as

ved_deof                                                     [procedure]
        Delete to end of file, from current line, inclusive.

ved_dl [ - ] N                                               [procedure]
        Delete N lines, counting up if negative.

ved_ds string                                                [procedure]
        Delete from  current  position  up to  but  not  including  next
        occurrence of string. Uses ved_cut.

ved_dsb string                                               [procedure]
        Delete between current position and beginning of last occurrence
        of string.

ved_dw [ - ] N                                               [procedure]
        Delete N words, counting left if negative.

ved_splice                                                   [procedure]
        For use with ved_cut. Copy  text from vvedcut_dump into  current
        file immediately after current  cursor location. (Unlike  ved_y,
        which inserts it  after the current  line.) See ved_cut,  ved_y,
        ved_yankl, ved_yankw.

ved_yankc                                                    [procedure]
        Copy marked range into the command file. See HELP * VEDCOMMANDS.

ved_y  [ linenum ]                                           [procedure]
        Copy contents of vveddump into current file after current  line,
        or after  linenum if  supplied.  (See ved_copy,  ved_d,  ved_da,
        ved_tr, ved_splice, ved_cut.) For example

                <ENTER> y 0

        will insert vveddump at beginning of file.

ved_yankl                                                    [procedure]
        Copy contents of  vvedlinedump after current  line. Can be  used
        after deleting a line, to get it back.

ved_yankw                                                    [procedure]
        Copy contents of  vvedworddump into current  line after  cursor.
        vvedworddump contains  last text  deleted by  word left  delete,
        word right delete, delete line to left, or delete line to right.

8.2  Copying (Transcribing) and Moving Text
ved_ca                                                       [procedure]
        Copy and Append marked range.  Text in marked range is  appended
        to vveddump. See ved_copy.

ved_copy                                                     [procedure]
        Copy  the  marked  range  into  vveddump.  See  ved_ca,   ved_y,
        ved_splice, ved_copy.  Unlike ved_ca  this over-writes  previous
        value of vveddump.

ved_m                                                        [procedure]
        Move marked range to after current line.

ved_mi [ filename ]                                          [procedure]
        Move the marked range In from the file filename into the current
        file, or  from the  last file  edited if  filename omitted.  See
        HELP * INOROUT and ved_mo, ved_ti, ved_to.

ved_ml [ - ] N                                               [procedure]
        Move N lines down (up if negative). N defaults to 1.

ved_mo [ filename ]                                          [procedure]
        Move the marked range  Out from the current  file into the  file
        filename, or  the  last file  edited  if filename  omitted.  See
        HELP * INOROUT, ved_mi, ved_ti, ved_to.

ved_over                                                     [procedure]
        Overlays a block of text from the marked range, to the block  at
        the cursor position.

ved_t                                                        [procedure]
        Transcribe marked range to after current line.

ved_tr                                                       [procedure]
        A synonym  for  ved_t, which  copies  the marked  range  to  the

ved_ti [ filename ]                                          [procedure]
        Transcribe In the marked  range from the  file filename, or  the
        last file edited if filename is omitted. See HELP * INOROUT.

ved_to [ filename ]                                          [procedure]
        Transcribe Out the  marked range  of the current  file into  the
        file filename (at the  cursor position in  the latter), or  last
        file edited if filename is omitted. See HELP * TO.

8.3  Changing Case
ved_capword [ N ]                                            [procedure]
        Calls vedcapword N times. N defaults to 1. Each call makes  sure
        first character  of current  word is  upper case  and  remainder
        lower case. Then moves to next word. Can be assigned to a key.

ved_ccw [ N ]                                                [procedure]
        Change Case of Words. Changes the case of the characters in  the
        next N  words, where  N defaults  to 1  if not  given. See  also
        ved_lcw and ved_ucw.

ved_lcw [ N ]                                                [procedure]
        Lower  case  words.  Transforms  next  N  words to  lower  case.
        N defaults to 1. See ved_ucw.

ved_lcl [ N ]                                                [procedure]
        Lower case lines. Like lcw, but for lines. Moves to next line.

ved_lcr                                                      [procedure]
        Lower case range. Transform marked range to lower case.

ved_ucw [ N ]                                                [procedure]
        Upper  Case  Words.  Transforms  next  N  words to  upper  case.
        N defaults to 1. See ved_lcw.

ved_ucl [ N ]                                                [procedure]
        Upper Case Lines.  Like ved_ucw but  transforms lines. Moves  to
        next line.

ved_ucr                                                      [procedure]
        Upper Case Range. Transform marked range to upper case.

8.4  Changing Character Attributes
Ved is able to represent  attributes such as "bold", "underline",  and a
colour number  (0 to  7) for  each  character in  the buffer.  There  is
currently a single Ved command for setting or changing these attributes,
ved_chat, described below. (For program use, there is also a syntax  for
specifying  attributes  in  Pop-11  strings  and  character   constants,
described in REF * ITEMISE.)

Where any character in a line has non-zero attributes, that line in  the
Ved buffer is represented by a  dstring rather than an ordinary one.  (A
dstring is an alternate form of string which maintains an extra byte for
each character to  hold the  attribute bits  -- see  Display Strings  in
REF * STRINGS.) On the  other hand,  when a file  is written,  character
attributes  are  translated  to  special  sequences  containing  control
characters, which are then  translated back to  attribute bits when  the
file is read in again. See Ved File Representation in REF * VEDPROCS for
more details.

Note that  the way  in which  a particular  attribute will  display  (or
whether it displays at all), is terminal-dependent. (This is  controlled
by the procedure * vedscreencharmode,  whose definition will change  for
different screens.)

For  example,  on  VT100-compatible  screens,  the  attributes   "bold",
"underline" and "blink" will display, but "alt font" (generally used for
italic) will display  as underlining.  The same  is true  for xterm  Ved
(except for "blink", which  displays  as bold).

Aside from colour on monochrome  screens, XVed is capable of  displaying
all attributes.  Note  that  by  default, "alt  font"  will  display  as
underlining; to make it display as  italic, you need to set the  altFont
resource for the window to a  suitable italic-style font -- see  General
Window Settings in REF * XVED.

As regards the use of the colour numbers 1 to 7, Ved uses the convention
that the  even-numbered colours  2, 4  and 6  are foreground-only  (i.e.
characters drawn in these colours have the normal colour 0  background),
while the odd-numbered colours  1, 3, 5 and  7 change the background  as
well. This allows  a sensible  interpretation for  colour on  monochrome
screens/terminals, namely that even colours  show up as normal,  whereas
odd colours display as inverse video.

For XVed, you  can change  the actual  colours used  for any  particular
colour number; again, see General Window Settings in REF * XVED.

From Poplog Version 15+, a  new attribute 'active' has been  introduced:
this is  used  to  delineate  the extent  of  text  containing  embedded
commands (see Embedded Text Actions in REF * VEDPROCS). It also modifies
the colour number,  giving 8 additional  colours 0A -  7A (the  even/odd
convention applies to these also).

Note that if  in doubt as  to the  set of attributes  on any  particular
character,  you  can  use  the  command  <ENTER>  cc  to  display   them
symbolically (see ved_cc in this file).

    DON'T attempt to use attributes  on program code, except  inside
    comments. While this will not  cause problems for code  compiled
    directly from a Ved  buffer (e.g. with  <ENTER> l, or  loading a
    marked range, etc), it WILL when written to a file and  compiled
    outside of Ved.

    This  is  because  the   extra  characters  used  to   represent
    attributes in files will appear  to compilers as spurious  code,
    and will  cause  compilation  errors.  Using  attributes  inside
    comments is quite safe, however, since in this context the extra
    characters will be ignored.

ved_chat scope attr                                          [procedure]
        CHanges ATtributes on characters.

        The scope argument is  a  letter or -letter specifying the scope
        of the change, as follows:

             c     Current character
             w     Current word
             l     Current line
             -c    Last character
             -w    Last word
             -l    Last line
             r     All characters in the current marked range
             s     All characters in the current XVed selection
             f     All characters in the current file

        (Note that there should be no space between the "minus" and  the
        letter). For r, s  and f the  cursor position remains  unchanged
        afterwards; for the  others, the  cursor is moved  to after  the
        scope in which the change is  made, i.e. to the next  character,
        word or line  (if `-`  is present,  this means  the cursor  will
        finish up where  it was). Note  that -w will  only apply to  the
        preceding word if the current position is in between two words.

        attr specifies the attribute(s) to  be set, added or removed  on
        each character  within scope,  and is  a sequence  of  attribute
        letters, optionally preceded by `+`, `-` or `~`.

        An initial + means ADD the given attributes to any currently  on
        each character;  an  initial  -  means  REMOVE  them  from  each
        character (but  leaving  any  other  attributes  unchanged);  an
        initial ~  means  INVERT the  given  attributes. None  of  these
        present means SET each character to have just those attributes.

        The allowable attribute letters/numerals are identical to  those
        used to  specify attributes  in  Pop-11 strings  and  characters
        constants (see  Backslash in  Strings &  Character Constants  in
        REF * ITEMISE), as follows:

            Letter/num   Meaning
            ----------   -------
              b          bold
              u          underline
              a or i     alt font/italic
              f          blink (flash)
              A          active (selects colours 0A - 7A)
              0 to 7     colour number 0 to 7

        Note that when a non-zero colour number is specified, the effect
        with + is to just set that colour, with - to remove any  colour,
        and with ~ to toggle between that colour and no colour.

        For example,

            <ENTER> chat w bi2

        would change  the  current  word  to  bold  italic  in  colour 2
        (removing any other attributes), whereas

            <ENTER> chat w +bi2

        would replace the colour number with 2, and add bold and  italic
        to any existing attributes.

ved_ul [ mark [ toggle ] ]                                   [procedure]
        This command scans the marked  range taking special action  when
        the following characters are encountered:

            #   replace with a space and mark the next word for

            $   replace  with space and  change mode: underline all
                words unless  preceded  by  # (until  another  $  is
                encountered - then change back)

        ved_ul may optionally  be given  a single character  mark as  an
        argument, which then is  used instead of  #. A second  character
        toggle, if supplied, is used instead of $.

ved_highlight                                                [procedure]
        The <ENTER>  highlight  command can  be  used to  highlight  all
        syntax words apart from those in comments and those in the  list
        highlight_exceptions whose default definition is

        global vars
            highlight_exceptions =
                [% "(", ")", "[", "]", "{", "}", ";", ":", ",", ".", "%",
                    "->", """, "^", "^^", "!" %];

        If the user has already assigned a value to highlight_exceptions
        that value is used.

        The program uses a very  simple algorithm going through all  the
        text items in the file that are not included in comments and  if
        they are  syntax words  but  not in  the  above list,  they  are
        underlined, using the command


        where the default value of highlight_commandstring is defined by

        global vars
            highlight_commandstring = 'chat -w u';

        If the user has already assigned a value to that variable it  is
        used instead of the default command string. For example, to  use
        bold instead of underlining you can put the folling in your file

            global vars
                ;;; highlight using bold
                highlight_commandstring = 'chat -w b';

        For additional options, e.g. use of colour, see REF * ved_chat

        NOTE: Syntax words will be  highlighted even if they they  occur
        quoted in lists, or between word quotes.

        The warning  given above  about  compiling code  with  character
        attributes set is repeated here:

        DON'T attempt to use attributes  on program code, except  inside
        comments. While this will not  cause problems for code  compiled
        directly from a Ved  buffer (e.g. with  <ENTER> l, or  loading a
        marked range, etc), it WILL when written to a file and  compiled
        outside  of  Ved.  (For  further  details  see  the  section  on
        character attributes).

        To undo the highlighting before saving a file use

            <ENTER> strip

8.5  Current Character
ved_cc [ d ]                                                 [procedure]
        Displays information about the  Current Character at the  cursor

        With no  argument, displays  the character:  special  characters
        such as control  characters and Ved  graphics and special  space
        characters are shown by name.  Any attributes the character  has
        are listed  (along  with 'HAS  DATA'  if the  character  has  an
        embedded data item attached to it).

        With the d argument, any embedded data item on the character  is
        displayed, or 'NO DATA' if  it has none. (Strings are  displayed
        surrounded by string quotes to distinguish them from words.)

        (See * ved_ic for inserting special characters.)

ved_ic [ char | dd | d= chars | d: expression ]              [procedure]
        Insert Character.

        This is used with the char argument to insert special characters
        such as control  characters and Ved  graphics and special  space
        characters at the current cursor position. With the dd, d= or d:
        arguments, it deletes  or inserts embedded  data on the  current
        character. Without any argument, it calls ved_cc to display  the
        current character instead.

        To insert a character, the char argument may be

          # anything for which strnumber will return an integer (e.g. an
            integer or Pop-11 character constant);

          # anything for  which strnumber  will return  an integer  when
            prefixed with backslash and  surrounded by character  quotes
            (i.e. any valid backslash sequence in a character  constant,
            but without the initial backslash or character quotes).

        For a full description of the allowable backslash sequences, see
        REF * ITEMISE, Backslash in Strings & Character Constants.

        For example,

            <ENTER> ic 26
            <ENTER> ic e          = <ENTER> ic `\e`
            <ENTER> ic G+         = <ENTER> ic `\G+`

        You can also insert a  character with attributes, although  note
        in this case that  if the actual  character requires a  (second)
        backslash, this must be present. E.g.

            <ENTER> ic [b3]G      = <ENTER> ic `\[b3]G`

        inserts a bold "G" in colour 3, but to insert a graphics "cross"
        with attributes requires a backslash before the G:

            <ENTER> ic [b3]\G+    = <ENTER> ic `\[b3]\G+`

        char may also be one of 'DEL', 'ESC', 'FF', 'FORM FEED' or 'CTRL
        X' (in either upper or  lower case) to insert the  corresponding
        control characters, i.e.

            <ENTER> ic ESC     = <ENTER> ic esc      = <ENTER> ic e
            <ENTER> ic FF      = <ENTER> ic ff       = <ENTER> ic ^L
            <ENTER> ic DEL     = <ENTER> ic del      = <ENTER> ic ^?
            <ENTER> ic CTRL X  = <ENTER> ic ctrl x   = <ENTER> ic ^X


        (Note that  when a  control character  is inserted,  it will  be
        display as  the  character  in  vedscreencontrolmark,  which  is
        normally the graphics "degree" sign `\Go`.)

        Embedded Data
        Supplying the dd, d= or d: arguments leaves the actual character
        value unchanged, but changes the embedded data on the character.

        dd means delete any embedded data.

        d= chars means embed the string chars on the character, e.g.

            <ENTER> ic d= shooting star

        would embed the  string 'shooting  star' (note  that any  spaces
        immediately following d=  are ignored). If  nothing follows  d=,
        nullstring is inserted.

        d: expression means embed  the item produced  by evaluating  the
        Pop-11 expression (which must produce a string or a word). E.g.

            <ENTER> ic d: "foo"

        would embed the word "foo".

ved_inc char_or_word                                         [procedure]
        Inserts the given char at the cursor position. If given a  word,
        then the value (a character  code) of the Pop-11 variable  named
        word is inserted.

8.6  Setting a Text Action

ved_tact [ = [ chars ] | : expression ]                      [procedure]
        Sets the command on a Text ACTion. See Embedded Text Actions  in
        REF * VEDPROCS for a description of active segments.

        The current cursor position must be somewhere within one of  the
        active segment(s) delineating the  textual extent of the  action
        to be updated (either the first segment, or a continuation).

        In all  cases, ved_tact  first calls  * ved_text_action_data  to
        find the appropriate place to embed the command (i.e. the  first
        non-space character of  the first  segment), and  then sets  the
        cursor to that position.

        With no argument, ved_tact just displays any current command, by
        calling <ENTER> cc d.

        The interpretation of  the = argument  depends on whether  there
        are any following chars:  if chars are  present, this means  set
        the command to the string chars, e.g.

            <ENTER> tact = ved myfile

        would set the command to the string 'ved myfile' (note that  any
        spaces immediately following = are ignored).

        With no chars, = means edit an existing command string. If there
        is an existing command string with characters chars, the command

            tact = chars

        is put  on  the  status  line:  this  can  then  be  edited  and
        re-inserted by typing <RETURN>.

        If there is no existing command, or the command is not a string,
        the =  argument is  ignored  and any  existing command  is  just
        displayed with <ENTER> cc d.

        The argument : expression  means set the  action command to  the
        item produced by  evaluating the Pop-11  expression (which  must
        produce a non-empty string, or a word). E.g.

            <ENTER> tact : "setpop"

        would set the command to the word "setpop".

        (Note  that  because  an  empty  string  is  an  active  segment
        continuation marker, ved_tact does not allow you to set an empty
        string as the command on an  action. If for any reason you  need
        to insert a continuation marker manually, this can be done  with
        <ENTER> ic  d=. You  can remove  a continuation  marker (or  any
        other data) from a character with <ENTER> ic dd.)

ved_mksref [ o ] [ scope ]                                   [procedure]
        MaKe Section REFerence.

        This command makes  a hotlink (text  action) that when  executed
        will  find   a   given   ved_newindex   section   heading   in a
        documentation file.

        The target file containing the section heading may be either (a)
        the current file (o argument absent)  or (b) some other file  (o
        argument present). In the  latter case, the  other file must  be
        the second  in vedbufferlist  (i.e.  the one  that  vedswapfiles
        would make the current file).

        In both cases, the required  section heading in the target  file
        must be  indicated  by marking  the  corresponding  ved_newindex
        index line for it (i.e. the marked range in the target file must
        consist of a single index line).

        The text action for  the hotlink will then  be either (a) a  Ved
        search command for the section  heading, or (b) a  documentation
        edit command with an attached  search command. (For (b),  line 1
        of the target file must begin with HELP, REF, DOC etc,  followed
        by the name  of the  file; this is  used to  construct the  edit
        command for the file.)

        The displayed text  (to which  the text action  is attached)  is
        either constructed  and inserted  automatically at  the  current
        cursor position (when  scope is absent),  or is specified  via a
        * ved_chat scope.

        In the latter  case, ved_chat is  called with scope  to add  the
        attribute colour  2A to  the displayed  text. (Note  that  scope
        cannot be r to specify the marked range.)

        If scope is absent, the text inserted automatically is

            section-description [ in doc-ref ]

        where section-description is the active segment (attributes bold
        italic colour 2A) with  the text action  attached. For case  (b)
        the 'in doc-ref' part is also added, where doc-ref is a separate
        active segment in the usual "*" doc ref format.

ved_mkdref                                                   [procedure]
        MaKe Documentation REFerence.

        With the cursor positioned anywhere  inside a "*" doc  reference
        of the form

                doctype * name

        (e.g. HELP  * FOO),  this command  adds the  standard  character
        attributes to the reference. doctype is made italic, the  spaces
        surrounding the "*" are changed to Ved no-break spaces  (`\Ss`),
        and the whole reference has colour 2A added.

8.7  Miscellaneous

ved_ifsp [ scope ] [ ss_char ]                               [procedure]
        Insert Format SPaces (for use when preparing REF files).

        This command  inserts  format-control (`\Sf`)  or  prompt-marker
        (`\Sp`) spaces at the beginning of each line in the given scope.
        The special space  character overwrites  column 1  of each  line
        (which must contain an ordinary space, Sf or Sp already).

        scope may be one of:

             l    Current line
             -l   Last line
             r    All lines in the current marked range

        If omitted, scope defaults to r, i.e. the marked range.

        ss_char specifies the kind of space to be inserted:

            f       Format-control (Sf)
            p       Prompt-marker  (Sp)
            -       Remove any special space, write an ordinary space.

        The default for ss_char if omitted is f.

        (<ENTER> ifsp is normally used in conjunction with <ENTER> dssp,
        which allows all the special spaces in a file to be displayed as
        visible characters -- see * ved_dssp below.)

ved_smr [ -f ] [ n ]                                         [procedure]
        Sort the marked range in alphabetical order, treating each  line
        as a  string  of characters.  If  given the  argument  -f,  fold
        uppercase letters  onto lower,  thus ignoring  case  differences
        when sorting. The  optional integer  argument n can  be used  to
        specify a (space-separated) field number to sort on.

ved_sw                                                       [procedure]
        Transpose  two  characters to the left of cursor. (Best assigned
        to a key).

ved_swl                                                      [procedure]
        Swap current word with word on left. Uses space as delimiter.

ved_swr                                                      [procedure]
        Swap current word with word on right. Uses space as delimiter.

ved_slrhs                                                    [procedure]
        When this command is  given on a  line containing an  assignment
        arrow (* ->) it produces a copy of the line with the text on the
        left  and  right  of  the  arrow  swapped  around  (without  any
        identprops which were on the original line.) This can be used to
        quickly create the synopsis line for the updater of a  procedure
        in a REF entry, see REF * REFFORM.

ved_strip                                                    [procedure]
        Strips all special Ved encodings  from the current buffer  (i.e.
        removes all  character attributes,  Ved special  characters  and
        embedded data), resulting  in a  plain ASCII  equivalent of  the

        This command simulates the effect of writing out the file with a
        value of 1 for * vedwriteoutplain,  and then reading it back  in
        again. That  is,  * vedfile_line_consumer is  used  (with  plain
        argument 1) to  'write' the  buffer lines to  an internal  area,
        which are  then 'read  back' with  * vedfile_line_repeater  (and
        substituted for the original buffer lines).

        (Note that the 'reading  back' of the lines  is affected by  the
        value of * vedreadinplain, as when reading in any file.)

9  Printing Commands

These commands can be used to print files from inside Ved.

ved_lp                                                       [procedure]
ved_lpmr                                                     [procedure]
        These  commands  provide  a  Ved  interface  to  the  Unix  "lp"
        facility. See HELP * LP, HELP * LPMR.

ved_lpr                                                      [procedure]
ved_lprmr                                                    [procedure]
        These commands  provide  a  Ved  interface  to  the  Unix  "lpr"
        facility. See HELP * LPR, HELP * LPRMR.

ved_print [ flags ] [ files ]                                [procedure]
        Operating system independent command  to print the current  file
        or a set of named files. For full details see HELP * VED_PRINT.

ved_hprint [ flags ] [ files ]                               [procedure]
        Like  ved_print  but  with  the  "-h"  (header)  flag  set;  any
        arguments are passed verbatim to ved_print.

ved_printmr  [ flags ]                                       [procedure]
ved_rngprint [ flags ]                                       [procedure]
        Operating system independent command  to print the marked  range
        from the current file. For full details see HELP * VED_PRINT.

10  Program File Commands

These are the  commands available  for dealing with  program files.  The
previous commands may all also be used with program files. Also included
here are commands that enable the user to make simple additions to  Ved.
Some additional relevant commands are included in other sections in this
file, e.g. ved_gsp, ved_mbp, ved_mep, ved_mcp.

See REF * VEDPROCS for fuller details on tailoring Ved.

      10.1  Aids to Programming
      10.2  Compilation Commands
      10.3  Program Editing Commands
      10.4  Moving Around and Searching Program Files
      10.5  Miscellaneous

10.1  Aids to Programming
ved_define                                                   [procedure]
        Insert format for procedure definition.

ved_if                                                       [procedure]
        Insert format for conditional statement

ved_repeat                                                   [procedure]
        Insert format for REPEAT statement

ved_unless                                                   [procedure]
        Insert format for unless statement.

ved_until                                                    [procedure]
        Insert format for until statement.

ved_while                                                    [procedure]
        Inserts  a  skeleton   "while  ...   endwhile"  statement.   See
        HELP * WHILE.

ved_mm                                                       [procedure]
        Move  to  Matching  end.  Uses  vedopeners  and  vedclosers   to
        recognise opening and closing brackets.  E.g. If cursor is  just
        before "if", <ENTER> mm moves it to after matching endif.

ved_mp                                                       [procedure]
        Match parenthesis. Moves to the  bracket matching the one  under
        the cursor. Works in either direction.

ved_wiggle [ opening-bracket closing-bracket ]               [procedure]
        Makes  the  cursor  automatically   wiggle  over  the   matching
        opening-bracket  when   the   closing-bracket  is   typed.   See
        HELP * VED_WIGGLE for full details.  For setting up wiggling  in
        your "vedinit.p" file, use * vedsetwiggle.

ved_wmp                                                      [procedure]
        "wiggle" matching parenthesis or other bracket.

10.2  Compilation Commands
ved_c                                                        [procedure]
        Compile all program  files (ie.  files with  extension .p,  .lsp
        etc.) and exit from Ved, to Pop-11, Prolog, or Lisp, etc, unless
        * ved_pop_back_file is non-false.

ved_c1                                                       [procedure]
        Just compile (load) one file, the current file and exit from Ved
        to Pop-11, Prolog, etc. Compiles the file even if its unchanged.
        See HELP * ved_pop_back_file.

ved_ccomp arguments                                          [procedure]
        Run C compiler and read output into Ved. See HELP * CCOMP.

ved_fcomp arguments                                          [procedure]
        Available only on Unix, this runs the f77 fortran compiler.  See

ved_l                                                        [procedure]
        Like ved_c, but doesn't exit from Ved.

ved_l1                                                       [procedure]
        Like ved_l, but compiles only current file (even if unchanged)

ved_lcp                                                      [procedure]
        Load current procedure. Uses ved_lmr.

ved_lmr                                                      [procedure]
        Load (compile) marked  range from edit  buffer. See  HELP * LMR.
        Any  output  produced   goes  into  the   current  file   unless
        vedlmr_print_in_file is  false,  or an  alternative  file  name.
        readline is re-defined to work  in the editor. Compare  ved_lcp,
        ved_l, ved_l1.

        Note that if  ved_lmr is used  to compile interactive  commands,
        i.e. programs that read input  with readline, charin, etc,  then
        this will  invoke  "immediate  mode" on  the  output  file  (see
        HELP * IM).

ved_load filename                                            [procedure]
        Loads the file filename.

ved_pcmr                                                     [procedure]
        Prolog_compile marked range.  Can be used  for Prolog  programs.
        Compiles in re_consult mode.

ved_plx                                                      [procedure]
        Writes all files that need  writing, compiles any program  files
        that need  compiling,  and  call  Prolog  on  the  current  file
        (exiting Ved).

ved_uses libname                                             [procedure]
        Loads the library libname if not already loaded.

ved_x                                                        [procedure]
        Write all changed files, compile them, then return to the  outer
        language compiler.

        Equivalent to ved_w(); ved_c(); See ved_c, ved_x1.

ved_x1                                                       [procedure]
        write then compile the current  file, then consult the value  of
        * ved_pop_back_file (qv).

10.3  Program Editing Commands
ved_dcp                                                      [procedure]
        Delete current procedure, and copy into vveddump.

ved_delout                                                   [procedure]
        Removes all  lines  which start  '**\s' from  the  current  file
        (assuming that  these are  output lines  produced by  the Pop-11
        print arrow => ).

ved_tidy                                                     [procedure]
        Do indentation on marked range. (For Pop-11 programs.) See  also
        ved_jp,  ved_jcp,   ved_fill,   ved_j.  Controlled   by   global
        variables: vedopeners,  vedclosers,  vedbackers,  vedforwarders,
        vedvarskeywords. See HELP * MARK.

ved_mbl                                                      [procedure]
        Mark beginning of current list. Uses ved_gbl. Will break line if
        needed to ensure beginning of list is on separate line.

ved_mcl                                                      [procedure]
        Mark current list. Uses ved_mbl and ved_mel. Will break lines if

ved_mel                                                      [procedure]
        Mark end  of current  list.  Uses ved_gel.  Will break  line  if
        needed to ensure end of list is on separate line.

10.4  Moving Around and Searching Program Files
ved_f name                                                   [procedure]
        Uses  * vedfindpdheader to  search  the  current  file  for  the
        definition of a procedure called name.

ved_gbl                                                      [procedure]
        Go to beginning of current list. Skips embedded lists.  Searches
        for `[` in Pop-11 source files and `(` in Lisp source files.

ved_gel                                                      [procedure]
        Go to end of  current list. Skips  embedded lists. Searches  for
        `[` in Pop-11 source files and `(` in Lisp source files.

ved_gol                                                      [procedure]
        Go out of the current list. Skips  embedded lists. Searches  for
        `[` in Pop-11 source files and `(` in Lisp source files.

ved_grep [ flags ] string filename [ filename ]              [procedure]
ved_grep [ flags ] filename
ved_grep [ flags ]
        Search the files for those  containing the string. On Unix, runs
        grep and on VMS runs search  with the given arguments and  reads
        the output into a temporary non-writeable Ved file. The optional
        flags argument is supported only in the Unix version; this  also
        admits more options, described in HELP * VED_GREP.

10.5  Miscellaneous
ved_errs                                                     [procedure]
        Switch whether LMR errors go in file. See HELP * LMR.

ved_output                                                   [procedure]
        Used to alter vedlmr_print_in_file. See HELP * LMR.

ved_wtype                                                    [procedure]
        Display information about syntactic properties of the object  to
        the right of cursor in Ved buffer.

11  Immediate Mode Commands

In "immediate" (or "interactive") mode,  every time the <RETURN> key  is
pressed, the current line  is handed to the  current compiler (that  is,
the compiler procedure for the current subsystem), and copied to the end
of the file if  not already there. Any  output produced is spliced  into
the file.  If the  variable  vedcrinteractive is  made false, then  this
behaviour of <RETURN>  is disabled  and ved_lmr  must be  used to  input
marked ranges instead.

For  more   details,   see   HELP * IM,  and   Ved-Buffer   Devices   in

ved_end_im                                                   [procedure]
        This command terminates "immediate mode" in a file.

        (More specifically, it causes "end of file" to be passed to  the
        first suspended process waiting  for Ved-buffer device input  in
        the list vedprocwait.)

        In the default key mapping (see HELP * VEDKEYS), ved_end_im  is
        mapped onto the sequence <ESC> Ctrl-Z.

ved_im  [ filename ]                                         [procedure]
        Starts "immediate mode" compilation in the file filename,  which
        defaults to "output.p" if omitted. See HELP * IM.

ved_imdcl [ filename ]                                       [procedure]
        (VMS Only.) Starts "immediate  mode" DCL command  interpretation
        in the file  filename, which defaults  to "dclfile" if  omitted.
        See HELP * DCL_COMPILE.

ved_imcsh [ filename ]                                       [procedure]
        (Unix   only.)   Starts   "immediate   mode"   cshell    command
        interpretation in the file filename, which defaults to "cshfile"
        if omitted. See HELP * IMCSH.

ved_imsh [ filename ]                                        [procedure]
        (Unix  only.)  Starts  "immediate  mode"  Bourne  shell  command
        interpretation in the file filename, which defaults to  "shfile"
        if omitted. See HELP * IMSH.

ved_noprompts                                                [procedure]
        Remove "prompt characters" from the current file, replacing them
        by spaces.  See  HELP * VED_NOPROMPTS.

ved_switchmode_im                                            [procedure]
        Switches between two modes by  toggling the true/false value  of
        the variable  vedcrinteractive.  If  this is  true  then  in  an
        "immediate mode" file, pressing <RETURN> will input the  current
        line to the compiler,  etc. If false,  then <RETURN> behaves  as
        normal (i.e. calls  inserts a  newline); in  this case,  ved_lmr
        must be used to input a marked range.

12  Operating System Interaction Commands

      12.1  UNIX Interaction Commands
      12.2  Commands to Spawn Sub-Processes

12.1  UNIX Interaction Commands
ved_csh command                                              [procedure]
        Runs the command command and  reads the output into a  temporary
        Ved buffer. See HELP * PIPEUTILS.

ved_cshfile                                                  [procedure]
        This command enables execution of  CSH scripts from within  Ved.
        See HELP * VED_CSHFILE for details.

ved_killcsh                                                  [procedure]
        This command kills any CSH child processes spawned from Ved. See
        HELP * KILLCSH for details.

ved_killsh                                                   [procedure]
        This command kills any SH processes from Ved. See HELP * KILLCSH

ved_shfile                                                   [procedure]
        This command enables  execution of SH  scripts from within  Ved.
        See HELP * VED_CSHFILE for details.

ved_rsh   machine command                                    [procedure]
ved_remsh machine command                                    [procedure]
        Runs the command command on the remote machine machine and reads
        the output into a temporary Ved buffer. See HELP * PIPEUTILS.

ved_sh  command                                              [procedure]
        Runs the  shell  command command  and  reads the  output  into a
        temporary Ved buffer. (UNIX only.) See HELP * PIPEUTILS.

ved_stop                                                     [procedure]
        Suspend current Poplog process, taking you
        back to the shell. If the process is re-run, then the Ved screen
        is restored properly. See HELP * STOP.

12.2  Commands to Spawn Sub-Processes
Like some of the  search commands, these do  not actually correspond  to
procedures whose names start with  "ved_". However they are  represented
here as if they did for the sake of uniformity.

ved_! [ command ]                                     [pseudo procedure]
        UNIX only. Run command in a  sub-process. This is like ved_%  or
        ved_$ depending on value of the SHELL environment variable.  See
        ved_obey (UNIX only).

ved_$ [ command ]                                     [pseudo procedure]
        Obey an operating system command  command via a sub-process.  On
        UNIX run command  as a "sh"  command. On  VMS obey it  as a  DCL
        command. If no command is  given spawn an interactive shell  (in
        Unix) or DCL  (in VMS)  command. On  VMS terminate  with "q"  or
        "logout". Compare ved_obey.

ved_% [ command ]                                     [pseudo procedure]
        UNIX  only.  Obey  the  command  as  a  "cshell"  command   in a
        sub-process. If  no  command  is  given,  then  spawn  a C-shell
        process. (Compare ved_stop, ved_obey.)

ved_: popcode                                         [pseudo procedure]
        Runs procedure  vedcompilevedargument,  which obeys  popcode  as
        Pop-11 code.  Any  results left  on  stack will  be  printed  on
        command line, or  at bottom  of screen  if there  is not  enough

ved_shell                                                    [procedure]
        UNIX only.  Treats  the current  file  as a  sequence  of  shell
        commands, and obeys them (using the procedure sysobey).

ved_dodcl                                                    [procedure]
        VMS only. Treats the current file as a sequence of DCL commands,
        and obeys them (using the procedure sysobey).

13  Altering Your Ved Environment

These commands allow a degree of control over the local environment,  by
allowing definition of  macros, and  setting of  control variables.  See
also  REF * VEDVARS,  and   REF * VEDPROCS  for   details  of   extended

      13.1  Finding Out About Your Environment
      13.2  Setting Text Boundaries
      13.3  Setting Variable Values
      13.4  Miscellaneous

13.1  Finding Out About Your Environment
ved_hk                                                       [procedure]
        Prompts user  to  press key(s),  then  prints the  name  of  the
        associated procedure, if any. See also ved_hkey.

ved_hkey                                                     [procedure]
        Prompts user to press key(s),  then prints a description of  the
        associated procedure. See also HELP * ved_hkey, and * ved_hk.

ved_hkeys                                                    [procedure]
        Using vedkeymapname, this procedure  displays a HELP file  which
        shows how Ved uses the keyboard of the terminal currently  being
        used. ved_hkeys is  the default  value of  vedhelpkey, which  is
        usually bound to the key marked "Help", if the terminal has one.

13.2  Setting Text Boundaries
ved_lcol arg                                                 [procedure]
        Sets the  left margin  to be  column number  arg (if  arg is  an
        integer) or  to the  current cursor  column (if  arg is  not  an
        integer, say the empty string '').  If arg is '?', displays  the
        current left margin setting.

ved_margin [ N ]                                             [procedure]
        Assign N to vedleftmargin. If  no number given, then use  cursor

ved_rcol  [ N ]                                              [procedure]
        Assign N  to vedlinemax.  If no  number given,  then use  cursor

ved_ruler                                                    [procedure]
        Inserts a "ruler" detailing margins and tab settings in a marked
        range above the current line.

ved_indent [ N ]                                             [procedure]
        Alter the value of * vedindentstep  to N. Default is 4.  Affects
        tab conversion.

ved_linemax [ N ]                                            [procedure]
        Sets vedlinemax to  be N.  This represents the  position in  the
        line where an automatic line break will occur. With no argument,
        gives the current setting.

ved_ll                                                       [procedure]
        For VT100 terminals with long line modes. Sets terminal in  long
        line mode and adjusts Ved accordingly. LIB * ved_ll for  details
        of dealing with  terminals without the  "Advanced Video  Option"

ved_screenwidth N                                            [procedure]
        Set  the  width  of  the  screen  (according  to  the   variable
        vedscreenwidth) to N.

ved_tabify                                                   [procedure]
        Changes a file or  Ved buffer  so that  leading spaces  (or  all
        spaces) are converted to tabs. See HELP * TABIFY.

ved_tabs                                                     [procedure]
        Switch conversion  of tabs  on  output. I.e.  not(vednotabs)  ->

13.3  Setting Variable Values
ved_autosave [mins | reset | off]                            [procedure]
        These commands turn on or off or control a facility that enables
        all changed files  to be saved  to disk every  mins minutes. For
        full details see HELP * ved_autosave.

        (Compare * vedautowrite, * ved_autowrite.)

ved_autowrite [ N ]                                          [procedure]
        With no  argument, simply  interrogates the  current setting  of
        vedautowrite (ie the number of changes a file can suffer  before
        a backup is written to disc).  With an argument, sets the  value
        of vedautowrite. Setting  it to zero  will disable  autowriting.

        Compare * ved_autosave.

ved_break                                                    [procedure]
        Toggles the value of vedbreak between true and false.

ved_set variable [ item ]                                    [procedure]
        With only one  argument, toggles  the named  variable. With  two
        arguments, sets the value of variable to be item.

ved_static                                                   [procedure]
        Toggle the value of vedstatic, which controls static mode.

ved_window [ Nlines ]                                        [procedure]
        Alters the size of  the current Ved window  to be Nlines  lines.
        With no arguments, defaults to  the value of vedstartwindow.  If
        Nlines is replaced by the "?" character the current size of  the
        window is reported on the  status line. (Note: Second window  is
        still size vedstartwindow  instead of 24  - Nlines. This  causes
        seriously weird side effects!)

        The ved_window  command is  extended in  XVed to  alter  several
        different window attributes. See HELP * VED_WINDOW once XVed has
        been loaded.

ved_ws [ Nlines ]                                            [procedure]
        If no  argument  is  supplied,  reports  the  current  value  of
        vedstartwindow. Otherwise assigns Nlines to vedstartwindow,  and
        redisplays the current Ved window accordingly.

13.4  Miscellaneous
ved_dk                                                       [procedure]
        Define new function for Key sequence. See HELP * DK.

ved_dm name                                                  [procedure]
        Define a new edit macro ved_name. See HELP * VEDMACROS.

14  Mail in Ved

These commands enable  the user  to send mail,  and manipulate  incoming
messages. See HELP * VED_MAIL for full details or the relevant  appendix
in the new Ved User Guide.

ved_ccm                                                      [procedure]
        Delete  current  message.  Uses  ved_mcm  to  mark  the  message
        (searches for From Username  lines) and ved_d  to delete it,  so
        the message may be retrieved using ved_y.

ved_gm                                                       [procedure]
        Go  to  message.  Used  in  file  produced  by  * ved_mdir.  See
        * ved_mail.

ved_mail                                                     [procedure]
        Spawns a subprocess  to interact  with the  host machine's  mail
        system See TEACH * MAIL, HELP * MAIL.

mail                                                            [syntax]
        Invoke ved_mail from Pop-11.

ved_mcm                                                      [procedure]
        Mark Current Message in UNIX mail file. (Or mbox)

ved_mdir                                                     [procedure]
        Make Directory for Unix mail file in current Ved buffer.

ved_reply [ arg ]                                            [procedure]
        Reply  to  current  message in  UNIX  mail file  only.  See also
        HELP * VED_REPLY.

ved_Reply [ arg ]                                            [procedure]
        Like ved_reply, but send to all original recipients.

ved_send name1,name2,... etc                                 [procedure]
        Send the current file as mail to named users. See HELP * SEND.

ved_sendmr                                                   [procedure]
        Like ved_send, but sends only marked range. See HELP * SEND.

15  Time Commands

ved_alarm  [hh:mm[ss]]                                       [procedure]
        The Ved screen clock also supports an alarm facility. Without an
        argument, this command displays the time for which the alarm  is
        set. If given an argument, the  alarm is set to that time.  (The
        seconds are optional. Without  them, the alarm  goes off in  the
        latter part of the minute specified.)

ved_clock [ int ]                                            [procedure]
ved_clock secs [ int ]
        (UNIX Only). This invokes LIB * ved_clock to display time on the
        status line,  updated  at  regular intervals,  as  described  in
        HELP * VED_CLOCK. The first form toggles the display on and off.
        The second  form  specifies that  seconds  should be  shown  and
        updated every INT  seconds. The  third form does  the same,  but
        with no argument toggles display of seconds on and off.

ved_date  [ linenum ]                                        [procedure]
        Displays the current date and  time (as returned by  sysdaytime)
        on the command line,  or if any argument  is given, the date  is
        inserted into the current file at the cursor position. See  also
        HELP * DATE.

ved_secs                                                     [procedure]
        When on,  the Ved  screen  clock defaults  to hh:mm  (hours  and
        minutes). This command adds/removes seconds from the display.

ved_time                                                     [procedure]
        Prints the  current  date and  time  (and timezone....)  on  the
        command  line,  in  the  format  returned  by  sysdaytime.   See
        HELP * TIME.

16  Multiple Commands on One Line

ved_do D command1 D command2 ...                             [procedure]
        Allows multiple Ved commands to be executed in a single command.
        <ENTER> do must  be followed immediately  by a single  delimiter
        character D which will then separate subsequent commands on  the
        line. D must therefore not occur  in the commands, and must  not
        be a space character. E.g. with D = semicolon

            <ENTER> do;/fred/;mc -5; dc 3;@+6

        does: search  for  'fred',  move  back  5  characters,  delete 3
        characters, then move on 6 lines.

17  Miscellaneous Commands

ved_closeall                                                 [procedure]
        In XVed, closes (makes iconic) all windows.

ved_draw                                                     [procedure]
        Toggles Ved interactive drawing mode. Drawing mode allows you to
        draw boxes and tables using the standard Ved graphics characters

               | ABC |----------+----------|

        <ENTER> draw toggles the state  of interactive Ved drawing.  The
        first time you do this, drawing is turned on for the current Ved
        buffer, and a message saying:

                DRAWING ON (DEL to DELETE, RETURN to STOP)

        is shown on the status line. Note that the drawing mode is local
        to each Ved buffer -- doing <ENTER> draw in one Ved buffer  does
        not effect other Ved buffers.

        When   drawing   is   on,    you   can   use   your    character
        up/down/left/right keys, or the  keys h (left)  j (down) k  (up)
        and l (right) to move the drawing cursor around. As you move the
        cursor, line graphics  characters are left  behind. If you  move
        the cursor left or right  you get horizontal lines. Likewise  up
        or down  movement  produces  vertical lines.  You  can  use  the
        spacebar to delete line characters. Ved will automatically  join
        horizontal and vertical line segments for you using corner,  'T'
        and '+' junctions to produce clean looking boxes and tables.

        Pressing DELETE will change the message to:

                DELETING ON (DEL to DRAW, RETURN to STOP)

        Thereafter moving the cursor will cause the character under  the
        cursor to be  deleted. Pressing  DELETE again  restores the  old

        While you  are drawing,  you cannot  insert standard  characters
        into your Ved buffer (this is to help you remember that you  are
        in drawing mode).  To go back  to typing mode,  hit <RETURN>  to
        stop drawing.

        Alternatively, you can use <REDO> to redo the ved_draw  command,
        making it easy to toggle between drawing mode and normal mode.

ved_dssp [ on | off ]                                        [procedure]
        Display Special SPaces.

        Enables Ved special space characters  in the current file to  be
        displayed as visible  characters --  see Special  Spaces Etc  in
        REF * VEDPROCS. (The command  has no  affect on  the display  of
        special spaces in other files.)

        on means make  the spaces visible;  off means set  them back  to
        normal display (i.e.  as ordinary spaces).  With neither on  nor
        off, the current mode is toggled.

        When on, the spaces are displayed as the following characters:

           Char    Name                        Displayed As
           ----    ----                        ------------
           Ss      Ved no-break space          .  (centred dot `\G.`)
           Sn      ISO Latin no-break space    .  (centred dot `\G.`)
           Sp      format-control space        f  (bold `f` colour 5)
           Sp      prompt-marker space         p  (bold `p` colour 7)
           St      trailing space              S  (bold `S` colour 3)

        (Note that in monochrome, colours 3, 5, and 7 display as inverse

ved_mafw                                                     [procedure]
        For system use only.

ved_obey                                                     [procedure]
        For system use.  Gives its argument  minus  first  character  to
        * sysobey.

ved_pop [ ss_name ]                                          [procedure]
        With no  argument,  simply exits  Ved  and returns  to  whatever
        language system was in use when Ved was invoked. If a  subsystem
        name ss_name  is  supplied,  then exits  Ved  and  replaces  the
        top-level language  compiler  outside  of  Ved  with  the  named
        subsystem compiler (which must be already be loaded, of course).

        In either  case,  the  current  Ved buffer  and  list  of  files
        vedbufferlist remain intact.

ved_popwc                                                    [procedure]
ved_popwcmr                                                  [procedure]
        Count words in a file or marked range using a slightly  modified
        pop itemiser; see HELP * WORDCOUNT.

ved_strips                                                   [procedure]
        Interface for the * SOLVER library package. See TEACH * STRIPS.

ved_vcalc                                                    [procedure]
        Interface for library * VCALC. See HELP * VCALC.

ved_idprops [identprops]                                     [procedure]
        Inserts an the specified  identprops string in bold-italic  text
        at the  far  right  of  the  current  line  enclosed  in  square
        brackets.  If  identprops  is  not  present  then  any  existent
        identprops on the current line are used. If there is no  current
        identprops on the line, then the last identprops entry  inserted
        by ved_idprops is used (this defaults to "procedure".)

ved_wc                                                       [procedure]
ved_wcmr                                                     [procedure]
        Count words in file, or in marked range. See HELP * WC.

18  Information on Tailoring Ved

The rest  of this  file is  concerned with  information for  experienced
users who are interested in tailoring Ved, by defining new commands.  It
can be safely ignored by new users.

Some examples of  Ved extensions appear  in HELP * INITIAL.EX with  many
more examples available in the directory:

        $usepop/pop/lib/ved UNIX

(See DOC * SYSSPEC for more information on Poplog directory structure)

      18.1  Command Line and Argument Processing
      18.2  Analysing the Argument String

18.1  Command Line and Argument Processing
The procedure veddocommand is invoked  when the <RETURN> key is  pressed
while the cursor is on the status line. It causes the command line to be
analysed, and the required command to be obeyed.

The command line is  separated into two strings,  these are the  command
portion C and the argument portion A.

In most  cases the  separation between  C and  A depends  on the  Pop-11
itemiser rules, which means that in  some cases no intervening space  is
required. However, special  treatment is  given to  commands that  begin
with one of the following characters:

    \ / " ` : $ % ! @

In these cases special commands are invoked as described in the note  on
special commands in the overview.

In  all  other cases, the string ved_ is prefixed to the command  string
C and the result given to consword  to create the name of a Ved  command
procedure, which  may  be a  user-defined  procedure, or  an  autoloaded
procedure, and the procedure is then run, or an 'UNKNOWN COMMAND'  error
reported. (See HELP * AUTOLOAD)

The characters in the string C are all converted to lower case. Thus all
the Ved  <ENTER> commands  can be  given  in upper  or lower  case.  The
argument string is  not converted, except  in the case  of HELP,  TEACH,
REF, DOC and SHOWLIB commands, unless the command has a mixture of upper
and lower case. Further information  about the command line is  provided

18.2  Analysing the Argument String
The command procedure has  access to the whole  command string as it  is
held in the global  variable vedcommand. The argument  string A is  held
held  (without  leading   tabs  or  spaces)   in  the  global   variable
vedargument. It may be recognised as empty, by the test:

        vedargument = nullstring

If the argument is meant to be a number, the procedure strnumber can  be
used to convert it, e.g.

        strnumber(vedargument) -> number;

See REF * strnumber.

If the argument string is to be broken into a list of separate items, it
is possible to use the code:

        sysparse_string(vedargument) -> list;

See REF * sysparse_string.

--- C.all/ref/vedcomms
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1996. All rights reserved.