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REF WORDS                                           John Gibson Nov 1992

        COPYRIGHT University of Sussex 1992. All Rights Reserved.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<           WORDS             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

This REF file contains those procedures and predicates necessary for the
construction, generation and manipulation of words along with those  for
using the dictionary.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Introduction

  2   Predicates on Words

  3   Constructing Words

  4   Accessing Word Characters

  5   Generating New Words (gensym)

  6   Dictionary Procedures

  7   Miscellaneous

1  Introduction

A word in  Poplog is  a record  structure that  represents a  particular
string of  characters (the  characters of  the word)  as a  'meaningful'
entity. Poplog maintains  a dictionary of  word records and,  whenever a
word record is to be constructed  for a particular string of  characters
with consword, the dictionary is searched to see if it already  contains
a word for  that string.  If so,  that is  returned --  otherwise a  new
record is  constructed  and  entered  in the  dictionary.  (This  is  in
contrast, say,  to the  construction of  a new  string with  consstring,
where a completely new string is produced every time. On the other hand,
copy applied to a word returns a copy which is not in the dictionary.)

Although they can be employed for  other purposes, the principal use  of
words  is  for  the  representation  of  identifiers  (i.e.   variables,
constants, etc) in a program. See REF * IDENT.

Note that some string manipulation procedures can also be used on  words
(see REF * STRINGS). See also  REF * DATA for general record  procedures
applicable to words.

2  Predicates on Words

See also  Predicates on  Strings in  REF * STRINGS, most  of which  also
apply to words.

isword(item) -> bool                                         [procedure]
        Returns true if item is a word, false if not.

check_word(item)                                             [procedure]
        Mishaps if item is not a word.

3  Constructing Words

consword(char1, char2, ..., charN, N) -> word                [procedure]
consword(string) -> word
        Returns a word word constructed from the top N characters on the
        user stack (where  the top character  on the stack  is the  last
        character of the  word), or  from the characters  in the  string
        string. For example:

            consword(`c`, `a`, `t`, 3) =>
            ** cat

            consword('mouse') =>
            ** mouse

        The word is taken  from the dictionary if  it is in there,  or a
        new word constructed and entered  in the dictionary if not.  See
        HELP * WORDS for an introduction to the rules for word formation
        in Pop-11.

subword(N, len, word) -> sub_word                            [procedure]
        Returns  the  word  sub_word   whose  characters  are  the   len
        characters of the  word word starting  from its N-th  character.
        word may also be a string (but the result is still a word -- see
        substring in REF * STRINGS if you want a string result).

4  Accessing Word Characters

destword(word) -> (char1, char2, ..., charN, N)              [procedure]
        Destructs the word  word, i.e.  puts all its  characters on  the
        stack, together  with its  length N  (in other  words, does  the
        opposite of consword(N)). E.g.

                destword("abcd") =>
                ** 97 98 99 100 4

subscrw(N, word) -> char                                     [procedure]
        Returns the N-th character char of the word word (this procedure
        does NOT have an updater).  Since subscrw is the class_apply  of
        words (see REF * KEYS), it can also be called as

                word(N) -> char

word_string(word) -> string                                  [procedure]
        Returns (a copy of) the string of characters of the word word.

5  Generating New Words (gensym)

gensym(root_word) -> word                                    [procedure]
n -> gensym(root_word)
        This procedure takes a 'root'  word root_word and returns a  new
        word word with an integer  suffix appended. Each call of  gensym
        on the same  word will increment  the integer suffix  by 1.  For

            repeat 4 times gensym("cat") endrepeat =>
            ** cat1 cat2 cat3 cat4

        The next integer suffix applicable  to each root word is  stored
        in the property  gensym_property. You can  thus reset the  value
        for a particular word by assigning directly to this property, or
        (more safely, since it checks its argument to be an integer), by
        using the updater of gensym:

            8 -> gensym("cat");
            repeat 3 times gensym("cat") endrepeat =>
            ** cat8 cat9 cat10

        Using clearproperty on gensym_property will reset the suffix  to
        1 for all root words, e.g.

            gensym("cat") =>
            ** cat1

        Using appproperty on gensym_property, you can apply a  procedure
        to each word that  gensym knows about with  the next suffix  for
        that word. For example:

            define report(word, suffix);
                lvars suffix;
                [the gensym suffix for ^word is ^suffix] =>

            appproperty(gensym_property, report);
            ** [the gensym suffix for dog is 2]
            ** [the gensym suffix for cat is 2]

gensym_property(root_word) -> N                     [procedure variable]
N -> gensym_property(root_word)
        The property in  this variable is  used by gensym  to store  the
        next integer suffix for a given root word. The default value  of
        the property is 1, so that


        will reset the suffix for all root words to 1.

appgensymproperty(p)                                         [procedure]
cleargensymproperty()                                        [procedure]
        Same as

                appproperty(gensym_property, p)




(Note: Prior to Version 14.5, gensym was implemented as a closure of  an
anonymous procedure whose frozval was the integer-suffix property.  This
is  no  longer  the   case:  the  property  is   now  in  the   variable
gensym_property, and gensym  itself is an  ordinary constant  procedure.
If required, use

        uses popobsoletelib, old_gensym;

to restore the old implementation.)

6  Dictionary Procedures

Note that the garbage collector removes words from the dictionary  which
are not  referenced elsewhere,  providing they  do not  have  associated
permanent identifiers.

fast_appdic(p)                                               [procedure]
        Applies  the  procedure  p  to   each  word  currently  in   the
        dictionary. If the procedure p causes new words to be created in
        the dictionary,  or old  words  to be  deleted  from it,  it  is
        undefined as to whether p gets applied to those words or not (in
        general it is safer to use  such a procedure with appdic  rather
        than fast_appdic).

appdic(p)                                                    [procedure]
        Applies the  procedure  p to  each  word in  the  dictionary  by
        copying all  dictionary  words  into a  vector  first  and  then
        applying p to each element of  that (thus ensuring that the  set
        of words to which p is applied is unaffected by p causing  words
        to be created or deleted). Defined as

                appdata({% fast_appdic(identfn) %}, p)

mapdic(p) -> list                                            [procedure]
        Applies the procedure p  to each word  in the dictionary  (using
        appdic), and returns a list of any results produced. Defined as

                [% appdic(p) %]

dic_distrib()                                                [procedure]
        Supplies information  on the  structure of  the dictionary.  The
        dictionary has  1024  slots --  if a  slot  is  empty  a  period
        character, and otherwise an  integer representing the number  of
        words resident in the slot, is printed.

countwords() -> N                                            [procedure]
        Returns the number of words in the dictionary.

wordswith(strword) -> list                                   [procedure]
        Given a word or a string as argument, this procedure returns  an
        alphabetically sorted list of  words from the system  dictionary
        which contain the argument as a substring or subword.

match_wordswith(strword, p) -> list                          [procedure]
match_wordswith(string_pattern) -> list
        In the  first  form,  given  a  string  or  word  strword  and a
        procedure p, returns an alphabetically sorted list of all  words
        in the system dictionary such that

                p(strword, dicword)

        returns true. In the second form, the list  contains  all  words
        that match the pattern string_pattern. See  HELP * WORDSWITH for
        more details.

syscancelword(word)                                          [procedure]
        Cancels the word word, i.e. removes it from the dictionary.

word_dict_status(word) -> result                             [procedure]
        Given a word word, returns true if word is in the  dictionary, a
        pair  if  word  was  produced  by  word_identifier,  and   false

        In the case of a word identifier (see REF * SECTIONS), the  pair
        returned contains a word and a section, i.e.

                conspair(name, sect)

        where name is the  name of the identifier  in section sect  (the
        components of this pair should NOT be altered).

7  Miscellaneous

undef -> word                                                 [constant]
        This constant contains  the word "undef".  It should contain  an
        undef record (see REF * IDENT), but for historical reasons  does
        not. Rather than use this, it is always clearer to use the  word
        "undef" directly.

word_key -> key                                               [constant]
        This constant holds the key structure for words. See REF * KEYS.

--- C.all/ref/words
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1992. All rights reserved.