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REF SOCKETS                                         John Gibson Jun 1995

        COPYRIGHT University of Sussex 1995. All Rights Reserved.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<        UNIX SOCKET          >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<         INTERFACE           >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<                             >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Introduction
      1.1   Socket Devices

  2   Socket Names
      2.1   Unix
      2.2   Internet
            ... host-spec
            ... port-spec

  3   Types of Socket
      3.1   Stream Sockets
      3.2   Datagram Sockets

  4   Socket Creation

  5   Accessing & Assigning Socket Names

  6   Sending and Receiving Messages

  7   Miscellaneous

1  Introduction

LIB * UNIX_SOCKETS is a set of procedures for creating and operating  on
Unix sockets. Before using  any procedures, the  library must be  loaded

    uses unix_sockets;

The  include   file  INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS   defines  various   integer
constants for use with these procedures.

This file describes only the Poplog interface to the socket  facilities;
it does not  attempt to provide  a tutorial on  sockets in general  (for
which, see the Unix documentation).

1.1  Socket Devices
In Poplog,  sockets are  represented by  system devices.  As with  other
procedures that  create  system  devices (i.e.  sysopen,  syscreate  and
syspipe), all procedures that create a  new socket take an argument  org
to specify  certain aspects  of sysread  and syswrite's  behaviour  when
applied to it.  See Opening  System Devices in  REF * SYSIO for  further

Note that the procedure  * sys_device_wait implements the  UNIX * select
system call,  and can  be used  to multiplex  I/O on  sockets and  other
devices. (Alternatively, asynchronous  processing can  be effected  with
* sys_async_io.)

2  Socket Names

Socket address  families are  defined by  the integer  AF_ constants  in
INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS. Most  Unix systems  support only  two, the  Unix
(AF_UNIX) and Internet (AF_INET) families.

By default, the procedures in  LIB * UNIX_SOCKETS also only support  Pop
socket name representations for these two. However, all name translation
is effected through the property * sys_socket_name_trans, which could be
extended to provide name translation for other domains if required.

2.1  Unix
AF_UNIX socket names are just ordinary Unix filenames (i.e. strings). As
usual in Poplog, input filenames are run through * sysfileok to  perform
any environment variable translation, etc.

2.2  Internet
AF_INET socket names consist  of a host-spec,  which specifies the  host
address, and an optional port-spec,  specifying the port number at  that
host (port-spec defaults to 0 when omitted).

An Internet socket name is therefore  a host-spec alone, or a  2-element

        [ host-spec  port-spec ]

...  host-spec
host-spec may be one of the following:

      # A host name string, e.g.


        The   given   name   is   translated   to   an   address   using
        UNIX * gethostbyname.

      # A string giving a numeric Internet address in dot notation, e.g.


        The string is given to  UNIX * inet_addr to produce an  address.
        (Note that inet_addr is tried first on any string beginning with
        a digit; if this returns an error, gethostbyname is tried.)

      # The word  "*", meaning  the wildcard  address INADDR_ANY.  (Used
        with a port-spec  to set a  local socket name,  where any  local
        host address will do.)

      # An integer Internet address directly (in host byte order).

      # A 2-element vector of the form

              { network  local-network-address }

        where network  is  an integer  or  a network  name  string,  and
        local-network-address is an integer.

        A network name string  is translated to  a network number  using
        UNIX * getnetbyname. In either case, the integer network  number
        is then  combined  with  the  local-network-address  part  using
        UNIX * inet_makeaddr.

...  port-spec
When present, port-spec takes the following values:

      # An integer port number.

      # An  Internet  service  name.  This  is  either  a  string,  or a
        2-element vector

            { service-name  protocol-name }

        where service-name is a string and protocol-name is a word.  The
        given  service  is   translated   to   a   port   number   using
        UNIX * getservbyname (qualified by the optional protocol-name if

        For example,

            [ '' 'nntp' ]
            [ '' {'daytime' udp} ]

        (A protocol-name vector  can also have  an explicit port  number
        instead of  service-name.  This  is useful  for  specifying  the
        protocol  to  sys_socket_to_service  when  a  non-standard  port
        is being used.)

Note that  those procedures  below  which return  a socket  name  always
return the host address part of an AF_INET name as a string in  Internet
dot notation.

3  Types of Socket

The type argument to sys_socket specifies the communication semantics of
the socket being  created, and  is one  of the  integer SOCK_  constants
defined in INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS (or an equivalent ASCII character, see

Most  Unix  systems  support  only  stream  (SOCK_STREAM)  and  datagram
(SOCK_DGRAM) types:

3.1  Stream Sockets
SOCK_STREAM sockets are connection-based 2-way byte streams (like  2-way
pipes). Connections  are  established  asymmetrically,  with  one  party
acting as server, and the other as client.

The server process must execute code such as the following:

    ;;; Create a control socket (n.b. ASCII `S` = SOCK_STREAM)

    lvars control_sock = sys_socket(af, `S`, false);

    ;;; Assign a known name local_server_name to the local name of the
    ;;; control socket, and start listening for connections. (For
    ;;; Internet, local_server_name is often [* port], meaning any
    ;;; local hostname at port port.)

    local_server_name -> sys_socket_name(control_sock, 5);

    ;;; Then repeatedly accept connections on the control socket.
    ;;; Each connection creates a new socket for actually communicating
    ;;; with the client.

        lvars comm_sock = sys_socket_accept(control_sock, org);

        ;;; process each comm_sock, e.g. add it to a list of connections

To make a connection, each client process creates a socket, and  assigns
remote_server_name to its sys_socket_peername:

    lvars comm_sock = sys_socket(af, `S`, org);
    remote_server_name -> sys_socket_peername(comm_sock);

sysread and  syswrite are  then used  to  read and  write data  on  each
communications socket.

3.2  Datagram Sockets
SOCK_DGRAM sockets implement datagrams, i.e. connectionless messages  of
a fixed maximum length:

    ;;; Create a datagram socket (n.b. ASCII `D` = SOCK_DGRAM)

    lvars sock = sys_socket(af, `D`, org);

    ;;; Optionally establish a local name for it.

    local_name -> sys_socket_name(sock);

Messages may then be sent using syswrite or sys_socket_send:

    ;;; Send a message to remote_name -- this can be done with either
    ;;; sys_socket_send ...

    sys_socket_send(sock, message, datalength(message), 0, remote_name);

    ;;; ... or with syswrite after assigning a remote_name to
    ;;; sys_socket_peername.

    remote_name -> sys_socket_peername(sock);
    syswrite(sock, message, datalength(message));

Messages are received with sysread or sys_socket_recv. In both cases, if
a remote_name has  been assigned to  sys_socket_peername, only  messages
from there will be accepted (otherwise,  they will be received from  any

    ;;; Receive a message -- this can be done with either
    ;;; sys_socket_recv if the sender's name is required ...

    sys_socket_recv(sock, buff, datalength(buff), 0, true)
                                            -> (nread, remote_name)

    ;;; ... or with sysread otherwise.

    sysread(sock, buff, datalength(buff)) -> nread;

See Sending and Receiving Messages below for more details.

4  Socket Creation

sys_socket(af, type, org)           -> sock                  [procedure]
sys_socket(af, type, protocol, org) -> sock
        Creates a  socket sock  (a system  device). See  Opening  System
        Devices in REF * SYSIO for a description of the org argument.

        af is  the  address/protocol family,  and  must be  one  of  the
        integer AF_  constants defined  in INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS.  Most
        Unix systems support only the  AF_UNIX and AF_INET domains;  the
        af argument for these may also  be given as the ASCII  character
        constants `u` and `i` respectively.

        type specifies the  communication semantics of  the socket,  and
        must  be  one  of  the   integer  SOCK_  constants  defined   in
        INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS.   Most   Unix   systems   support   only
        SOCK_STREAM   (connection-based   2-way   byte   streams),   and
        SOCK_DGRAM (datagrams, i.e. connectionless, unreliable  messages
        of a fixed maximum length). These  two may also be specified  as
        the ASCII character constants `S` and `D` respectively.

        The  optional  protocol  argument   may  specify  a   particular
        transmission protocol to  be used. (That  is, where possible  --
        normally, only a single protocol exists to support a  particular
        socket type within  a given  family, and  this will  be used  by
        default.) If  supplied, protocol  must be  a word.  This can  be
        either a protocol name, in which case UNIX * getprotobyname will
        be called to translate it to  a protocol number, or it may  be a
        protocol number directly (but again, as a word, e.g. "'123'").

        For example,

            vars sock = sys_socket(`i`, `S`, false);

        creates an Internet stream socket (default protocol "tcp").

        See also UNIX * socket.

sys_socket_pair(af, type, org)           -> (sock1, sock2)   [procedure]
sys_socket_pair(af, type, protocol, org) -> (sock1, sock2)
        Creates a pair of unnamed sockets sock1 and sock2, each of which
        is  already  connected  to  the  other.  The  two  sockets   are

        The arguments are  the same  as for  sys_socket above.  However,
        Unix only implements  this call for  the AF_UNIX address  family
        (where if type is SOCK_STREAM, sock1 and sock2 are just the same
        as two-way pipes).

        See also UNIX * socketpair.

sys_socket_accept(sock, org) -> conn_sock                    [procedure]
        Accepts server-side connections on a stream socket sock.

        sock must  have  a local  name  assigned and  be  listening  for
        connections, i.e. the call

            local_name -> sys_socket_name(sock, qlen);

        must previously have been made.

        The connection  is made  on  a new  socket conn_sock,  which  is
        returned.  conn_sock  inherits  its  address  family,  type  and
        protocol (and option settings) from sock, and uses the given org
        argument. sys_socket_peername  may be  applied to  conn_sock  to
        determine the name of the connected peer.

        See also UNIX * accept.

sys_socket_to_service(serv_name, org) -> sock                [procedure]
        A convenience routine for connecting to an Internet service at a
        given host.

        serv_name must be an AF_INET socket name containing an  Internet
        service name for the port spec (or an explicit port number  with
        a protocol -- see Socket Names: Internet above).

        sys_socket is then called (with  last argument org) to  create a
        socket sock for  address family  AF_INET. sock  is created  with
        type  SOCK_STREAM  or  SOCK_DGRAM,  according  to  whether   the
        protocol used by  the service  is "tcp"  or "udp"  respectively.

        (Note that providing it supplies a service name, serv_name  need
        not    specify    an     explicit    protocol    name,     since
        UNIX * getservbyname returns  this  information along  with  the
        port number. However, it must specify a protocol name if a  port
        number is given.)

        The  socket  is  then   connected  by  assigning  serv_name   to
        sys_socket_peername for sock.

        For example

          vars nntp_sock =
                sys_socket_to_service(['' 'nntp'], false);

        would connect to the 'nntp' news server at host ''.

5  Accessing & Assigning Socket Names

sys_socket_name(sock) -> name_or_false                       [procedure]
name -> sys_socket_name(sock)
name -> sys_socket_name(sock, qlen)
        Returns or  assigns  the local  name  of the  socket  sock.  For
        SOCK_STREAM sockets, the updater optionally starts listening for
        server-side connections.

        The base procedure returns the  local name of sock (as  supplied
        by UNIX * getsockname), or false if the socket is unnamed.

        The updater  assigns name  to  be the  local  name of  sock  (by
        calling UNIX * bind). The socket must  not have a name  assigned

        For stream sockets,  the optional integer  argument qlen may  be
        supplied. After assigning the name,  the updater will then  call
        UNIX * listen on sock to start listening for client  connections
        (allowing for  a  maximum  of qlen  connection  requests  to  be
        queued).  Connections  on  sock   may  then  be  accepted   with
        * sys_socket_accept.  (Note  that  queued  but  not-yet-accepted
        connections  on   sock  behave   as   'input'  in   respect   of
        * sys_input_waiting and  * sys_device_wait. * sys_async_io  with
        condition argument 0  can also be  used to provide  asynchronous
        notification of connections on sock.)

sys_socket_peername(sock) -> name_or_false                   [procedure]
name -> sys_socket_peername(sock)
name -> sys_socket_peername(sock, changes_p)
name -> sys_socket_peername(sock, retries)
name -> sys_socket_peername(sock, changes_p, retries)
        Returns or assigns the peername of the socket sock.

        The base procedure returns the peername of sock (as supplied  by
        UNIX * getpeername), or false  if the socket  has no  associated

        The updater assigns name to be the peername of sock (by  calling
        UNIX * connect). The  effect  of this  depends  on the  type  of
        socket, as follows:

        Datagram Sockets
        For SOCK_DGRAM sockets, peername assignment sets the address  to
        which datagrams will be sent (with syswrite, or  sys_socket_send
        with no destination specified). It constrains datagrams received
        (with sysread or sys_socket_recv) to come from that address. You
        can change the peername at any time (or assign false to dissolve
        any association).

        Stream Sockets
        For SOCK_STREAM sockets, assigning a peername makes a ('client')
        connection to  the designated  address; this  can be  done  only
        once. For  a  connection  to  be  established,  the  peer  (i.e.
        'server') must be  listening for connections  at the  designated
        address (see sys_socket_name  above), and must  then accept  the
        connection (see sys_socket_accept).

        However, a connection may be temporarily refused, for example if
        the server's queue of pending (not yet accepted) connections  is
        full. For this reason,  the updater of sys_socket_peername  will
        retry upto  retries  times to  make  the connection  (where  the
        optional integer retries argument defaults to 5 if omitted). The
        procedure waits one second before each retry.

        For  Unix-related  reasons,  each  connect  failure  (i.e.  Unix
        ECONNREFUSED error), causes the Unix file descriptor  associated
        with sock to become unusable for further operations. The updater
        of sys_socket_peername is therefore obliged to open a new socket
        before trying  again,  and to  replace  the sock  device's  file
        descriptor with the new one.

        As a  result,  any  assignments previously  made  to  sock  with
        sys_socket_option will be  lost. To surmount  this problem,  the
        optional changes_p argument may be supplied: this is applied  to
        sock before each connection attempt (including the first). Hence
        any  sys_socket_option  assignments   that  need  doing   before
        connection should be put into a changes_p procedure.

        Note   that   for   all   types   of   socket,   assigning    to
        sys_socket_peername   also   causes   the   local   name   (i.e.
        sys_socket_name) of the socket to be assigned a value if it does
        not already have one (the value is chosen by Unix).  Client-side
        SOCK_STREAM sockets do not usually bother assigning an  explicit
        local name, but if this has been done, sys_socket_peername  will
        preserve  the  assignment  across  any  new  socket  descriptors
        created during connection retries.

6  Sending and Receiving Messages

For most purposes, sysread and  syswrite are sufficient for reading  and
writing sockets. However, these cannot be used

      # For out-of-band data on stream sockets.

      # When receiving datagrams on a datagram socket with no associated
        peername (and which can therefore receive from any sender),  and
        where the sender address of each message is required (e.g.  so a
        reply can be sent). Although sysread will read such messages, it
        will not provide the sender addresses.

        (Note that syswrite  can be  used to send  messages to  multiple
        destinations    by    assigning    different    peernames     to
        sys_socket_peername. syswrite  cannot  be  used  on  a  datagram
        socket with no associated peername.)

The procedures sys_socket_recv and sys_socket_send are provided to  cope
with the  above cases.  Unlike  sysread and  syswrite, they  provide  no
internal Poplog buffering of data.

sys_socket_recv(sock, buff, nbytes, flags, false)            [procedure]
                                            -> nread
sys_socket_recv(sock, buff, nbytes, flags, true)
                                            -> (nread, from_name)
        Provides an interface to UNIX * recv and * recvfrom for  reading
        messages from the socket sock.

        buff is a string into which at most nbytes bytes of data will be
        read (starting at subscript 1).  The flags argument is  either 0
        or one  or  more  of  the  integer  MSG_  constants  defined  in
        INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS or'ed together.

        The number of bytes nread  that were actually read is  returned.
        If the  last  argument  is  false,  this  is  the  only  result;
        otherwise the sender's address from_name is returned as well.

sys_socket_send(sock, buff, nbytes, flags, to_name)          [procedure]
        Provides an interface  to UNIX * send and  * sendto for  writing
        messages to the socket sock.

        buff is a string from which nbytes bytes of data will be written
        (starting from subscript 1). The  flags argument is either 0  or
        one  or  more   of  the  integer   MSG_  constants  defined   in
        INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS or'ed together.

        The to_name argument is  either the name  of the destination  to
        which the message should be sent, or false; in the latter  case,
        the  socket   must  have   had  a   destination  assigned   with

7  Miscellaneous

sys_socket_option(sock, option) -> bool_or_int               [procedure]
bool_or_int -> sys_socket_option(sock, option)
        Provides an interface to UNIX * getsockopt and * setsockopt  for
        accessing and updating socket-level and Internet TCP options  on
        a socket sock.

        option must be one  of the integer SO_  or (for Internet  stream
        sockets) TCP_ contants  defined in INCLUDE * UNIX_SOCKETS.  With
        the exception of SO_LINGER, all supported options have  either a
        boolean or an integer value, e.g.

            sys_socket_option(sock, SO_REUSEADDR) =>
            ** <false>
            true -> sys_socket_option(sock, SO_REUSEADDR);

            sys_socket_option(sock, TCP_MAXSEG) =>
            ** 536

        For SO_LINGER,  the  value is  false  if the  linger  option  is
        disabled, and an integer timeout value in seconds otherwise:

            sys_socket_option(sock, SO_LINGER) =>
            ** <false>
            1 -> sys_socket_option(sock, SO_LINGER);

        Options for other protocol levels are not supported.

sys_socket_shutdown(sock, how)                               [procedure]
        Shuts down all or part of a full-duplex connection on the socket
        sock. Allowed values for how are

            how     Meaning
            ---     -------
             0      Disallow further reads or receives.
             1      Disallow further writes or sends.
             2      Disallow both reads and writes.

        See also UNIX * shutdown.

sys_socket_name_trans(af) -> trans_p                         [procedure]
trans_p -> sys_socket_name_trans(af)
        This is a  property which maps  a given address  family af  to a
        procedure-with-updater  trans_p  for  translating  between   Pop
        socket names and Unix addresses for that family.

        By default, only procedures for the AF_UNIX and AF_INET  domains
        are defined.  A new  procedure trans_p  for some  other  address
        family must have the form

            trans_p(name) -> (namebuff, namesize)
            (namebuff, namesize) -> trans_p() -> name

        i.e. the base procedure takes a name name and returns  namebuff,
        namesize, while the updater takes namebuff, namesize and returns

        name is whatever Pop object(s) are being used to represent names
        in the given domain.

        namebuff and  namesize  are the  external  representation  (i.e.
        appropriate sockaddr struct)  of the  name as  supplied to  Unix
        routines  such  as   bind,  connect.  namebuff   should  be   an
        "exptr_mem" structure  (as  produced  by  * initexptr_mem),  and
        namesize the size in bytes as expected by the Unix routines.

        See LIB * UNIX_SOCKETS for the corresponding AF_UNIX and AF_INET

--- C.unix/ref/sockets
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1995. All rights reserved.