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REF PROCEDURE John Gibson Jan 1995 COPYRIGHT University of Sussex 1995. All Rights Reserved. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< PROCEDURES >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< This REF file describes procedure records and procedure calling in Poplog. CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections) 1 Introduction 1.1 Proper Procedures 1.2 Closures 2 Predicates on Procedures 3 Accessing Procedure Fields 4 Closures 5 Generic Datastructure Procedures on Procedures/Closures 5.1 Composing Procedures with <> 6 Calling and Chaining Procedures 7 Call Stack Information 8 Miscellaneous --------------- 1 Introduction --------------- A procedure record in Poplog is an object whose datakey is <key procedure>, and which contains executable code (native machine code in all current implementations). Although there are different types of procedures, all are structured in such a way that they can be executed by the same protocol (i.e. extract the address of the executable code and transfer control to it). In addition, all procedures have an updater field (possibly holding another procedure, to be run when the base procedure is executed in update mode), and a pdprops field (usually containing the procedure name). There are two basic types of procedure: proper procedures and closures: 1.1 Proper Procedures ---------------------- A proper procedure is one that maintains an environment of local variables (lexical and/or dynamic), and that creates a stack frame on the call stack. As well as containing local variable values, the stack frame holds the address of the procedure of which this is an invocation (the owner of the frame), and the return address into the caller procedure. Most proper procedures are created by the Poplog Virtual Machine from code planted by compilers (for details see REF * VMCODE). However, there are two special forms of proper procedure: arrays and composites. Array procedures are created by * newanyarray, while composite procedures result from concatenating two procedures together with the operator <> (see Composing Procedures with <> below). 1.2 Closures ------------- A closure is a structure which binds a procedure (its * pdpart) with zero or more argument values (its frozen values, see * frozval). The executable code inside a closure loads the frozen values onto the user stack and then executes the pdpart procedure (which may in its turn be another closure or a proper procedure). Unlike a proper procedure, a closure does not maintain local variables or a call stack frame of its own: only the procedure it invokes does. Thus there is no record of a closure having been invoked. Closures are created explicitly by * consclosure (or * partapply), as described below. The Pop-11 syntax form p(% ... %) compiles to a call of consclosure. Closures may also be created implicitly if a nested procedure accesses non-local lexical variables (as described in Implementation of Lexical Scoping in REF * VMCODE). Such lexical closures are "protected" and it is not possible to change their pdpart, pdnargs, or pdprops. Protected closures are recognized by isclosure defined below. Some examples, and further explanation can be found in HELP * CLOSURES. Other closures are created by various system facilities, e.g. * newproperty and * newanyproperty create closures that represent properties (see REF * PROPS). --------------------------- 2 Predicates on Procedures --------------------------- See also REF * PROPS and REF * ARRAYS for predicates on special forms of procedures. isprocedure(item) -> bool [procedure] Returns true if item is a procedure (i.e. a proper procedure or a closure), false if not. isclosure(item) -> bool [procedure] Returns 1 if item is a protected closure, true if item is any other type of closure, false otherwise. ispcomposite(item) -> bool [procedure] Returns true if item is a procedure produced by composing two procedures with the operator <> (see Generic Datastructure Procedures on Procedures/Closures below), or false otherwise. ----------------------------- 3 Accessing Procedure Fields ----------------------------- pdnargs(p) -> n [procedure] n -> pdnargs(p) Returns or updates the number of arguments n of the procedure p, where n is an integer in the range 0 - 254. When p is a proper procedure, the default value of n is the number of formal arguments given when the procedure was constructed. A closure, on the other hand, is initially set up so that until an explicit value is assigned to it with the updater of pdnargs, the value returned is pdnargs(pdpart(p)) - datalength(p) i.e. the number of arguments of its pdpart minus the number of frozen values. (This will be negative if the number of frozen values exceeds the pdnargs of the pdpart, which is quite possible since closures are allowed to have a lot more than 254 frozvals.) The pdnargs of a composite procedure is defined as the pdnargs of the first procedure, ie: pdnargs(p1 <> p2) == pdnargs(p1) The pdnargs of arrays (including sparse arrays) is equal to the number of dimensions of the array. The pdnargs of a property is always equal to 1. Assigning an explicit value to an object's pdnargs causes that value to be returned by pdnargs thereafter. pdprops(p) -> item [procedure] item -> pdprops(p) Returns or updates the 'props' field of the procedure p (which may contain anything). (Note that for Pop-11 procedures defined using define ... enddefine the pdprops defaults to a word which is the name given in the definition (excluding any section pathname), and for procedures created using procedure ... endprocedure the pdprops defaults to false. In both cases with_props (See REF * SYNTAX) can be used to override the default, as can explicit use of the updater of pdprops.) updater(p) -> up [procedure] up -> updater(p) Returns or updates the updater up of the procedure p. up is false if p does not have an updater; assigning false to the updater of p will remove it. ----------- 4 Closures ----------- consclosure(p, item1, item2, ..., itemN, N) -> clos [procedure] Constructs and returns a closure based on the procedure p and whose N frozen values are item1, .., itemN. In Pop-11 terms, this is equivalent to p(% item1, item2, ..., itemN %) If p has an updater up, then the updater of the constructed closure will be consclosure(up, item1, item2, ..., itemN, N) Note that N may be upto (at least) 65,000 -- the exact limit is implementation dependent. (Thus closures can have considerably more frozvals than proper procedures can have arguments.) partapply(p, list) -> clos [procedure] Same as consclosure(p, destlist(list)) (i.e. partapply = destlist <> consclosure). pdpart(clos) -> p [procedure] p -> pdpart(clos) Returns or updates the procedure part of the closure clos, i.e. the procedure on which the closure clos was constructed. Note that clos can be a proper procedure, in which case false is returned. frozval(n, clos) -> item [procedure] item -> frozval(n, clos) Returns or updates the n-th frozen value item of the closure clos. sys_grbg_closure(clos) [procedure] Puts the closure clos on an internal freelist so it can be reused by consclosure. (Note that currently, this is only effective for closures with up to 16 frozvals -- a clos having more than 16 will be ignored.) ---------------------------------------------------------- 5 Generic Datastructure Procedures on Procedures/Closures ---------------------------------------------------------- The generic datastructure procedures described in REF * DATA (datalength, appdata, explode, fill, etc, and others defined in terms of those) are all applicable to closures (but not to proper procedures). They treat a closure as if it were a vector of its frozen values, e.g. if a closure clos has N frozen values, then datalength(clos) = N. copy may also be applied to closures, and to proper procedures which are not part of the system (those for which isinheap is true). Note that as usual with copy, only the top-level structure is copied: the pdprops, pdnargs and updater (and for closures the pdpart and the frozen values) remain as for the original. The structure comparison procedure sys_= treats two proper procedures as equal if and only they are identical (i.e. ==). Two closures are deemed equal if their pdparts are =, they have the same number of frozen values, and the corresponding frozen values are =. 5.1 Composing Procedures with <> --------------------------------- The operator <> is also applicable to all kinds of procedures (see REF * DATA for its action on other data types): For p1 and p2 procedures, the call p1 <> p2 -> p3 constructs a (proper) procedure which is the composition of its arguments, i.e. p3 is a procedure which will call p1 followed by p2. p3 is thus equivalent to procedure(); p1(); p2() endprocedure; If p2 has an updater, the updater of p3 will be a procedure which calls p1 and then calls the updater of p2, i.e. procedure(); p1(); -> p2() endprocedure; (if p2 has no updater then neither will p3). A procedure produced by <> can be tested for with ispcomposite (see above). The pdnargs of a composite procedure are set to pdnargs(p1). sys_= treats two composite procedures as equal if their p1 procedures are = and their p2 procedures are =. ---------------------------------- 6 Calling and Chaining Procedures ---------------------------------- apply(p) [procedure] -> apply(p) Executes the procedure p. The update form executes the updater of p. (Note that this procedure represents a stack frame, i.e. will be in the calling chain while p is being applied; this is not so for the non-checking version fast_apply, see REF * FASTPROCS). applynum(p, N) [procedure] -> applynum(p, N) Applies the given procedure (or item) p, integer N times. The updater applies the updater of p, N times. See also REF * dupnum, * apply, * fast_apply. sysrepeat(num, p) [procedure] Applies procedure p, num times. Unlike applynum, num may be any kind of real number, not just an integer (and is slower as a consequence). See also * applynum (and the Pop-11 syntax word * repeat). chain(p) [procedure] Exits the current procedure, restoring the environment of its caller, and then executes the procedure p. (Thus p is effectively 'chained' onto the current procedure.) chainfrom(target, p) [procedure] Exits back up the calling chain until immediately inside a call of the target procedure specified by target, exits from this call, and then executes the procedure p. The argument target may be either an actual procedure (in which case exiting terminates on reaching a call of the given procedure), or a callstack length as returned by * callstacklength (in which exiting terminates when the call stack length is <= target). chainto(target, p) [procedure] Exits back up the calling chain until immediately inside a call of the target procedure specified by target, and then executes the procedure p. The value of target is as for chainfrom, i.e. an explicit procedure or a call stack length. exitfrom(target) [procedure] Equivalent to chainfrom(target, identfn). exitto(target) [procedure] Equivalent to chainto(target, identfn). jumpout(p, N) -> jumpout_p [procedure] Returns a procedure jumpout_p which when applied will cause exit from the current caller (i.e. the procedure that called jumpout in the first place). Before effecting the exit, jumpout_p first calls the given procedure p (with no arguments). Then, if the user stack length excluding the top N items is greater than it was at the time of the jumpout call, a sufficient number of items above the top N are removed to reset it to that value. (I.e. when the exit is effected, the user stack should be in its state at the time of the jumpout, but with N items added.) See SHOWLIB * jumpout. For example, the following procedure scans a binary tree looking for the first element which is bigger than some given number: define search(num, tree); lvars found = jumpout(identfn, 1); define scan(tree); if atom(tree) then if isnumber(tree) and tree > num then found(tree) endif else scan(hd(tree)); scan(tl(tree)) endif enddefine; scan(tree); return(pop_undef); enddefine; search(5, [[1 4 [6 3]] 8]) => ** 6 search(9, [[1 4 [6 3]] 8]) => ** <undef> Note that unless you want the stack-cleaning effect of jumpout, exitfrom is usually easier (i.e. the above example could just use exitfrom(tree, search) when the number is found). catch(apply_p, if_caught, catch_pattern) [procedure] throw(throw_item) [procedure] These two procedure work in conjunction: catch 'catches' calls of throw. catch applies the procedure apply_p (which make then take further arguments off the stack), inside an environment which retains the values of the if_caught and catch_pattern arguments for later use with a call of throw occurring inside apply_p (or inside procedures that it calls, etc). Such a call of throw then 'throws' the argument throw_item to the most recent call of catch that will catch it, that is, it repeatedly exits through all procedures upto the next call of catch, until it reaches a call of catch for which throw_item matches catch_pattern is true. When this happens, the if_caught argument to the catch call is then applied if it is a procedure, or simply returned as result from that catch otherwise. A mishap results if there is no call of catch whose catch_pattern matches throw_item. See SHOWLIB * CATCH. ------------------------- 7 Call Stack Information ------------------------- For additional information concerning local variables of currently active procedures see REF * IDENT. caller(n) -> p_or_false [procedure] Where n is an integer >= 0, returns the n-th caller of the current procedure; caller(0) is the current procedure. false is returned if there are less than n procedures in the call chain above the current one. See also * caller_valof. iscaller(p, m) -> n [procedure] iscaller(p) -> n Determines whether the procedure p is currently in the calling chain, returning the caller number n of p if so, or false if not. The search for p is begun at the m-th caller, the form iscaller(p) being the same as iscaller(p, 0). E.g. a procedure to count the number of currently active calls of a given procedure p: define count_calls(p) -> count; lvars p, count = 0, n = 0; while iscaller(p, n) ->> n do count + 1 -> count; n + 1 -> n ;;; skips this call of p endwhile enddefine; syscallers() -> list [procedure] Returns a list of all procedures currently in the calling chain, starting with caller(2) inside syscallers (i.e. the caller of the procedure calling syscallers). Defined as define syscallers() -> list; lvars list, n = 2, p; [% while caller(n) ->> p do p; n + 1 -> n endwhile %] -> list enddefine; callstacklength(target) -> len_or_false [procedure] Returns the total length of the call stack (i.e. of all stack frames) upto and including the stack frame represented by target. target may be either an integer caller number (as for * caller), or an explicit procedure (in which case the target stack frame is the most recent call of that procedure). false is returned if target is not found (i.e. there are less than target current calls for an integer, or target is not in the calling chain for a procedure). The length returned is given in Poplog word units (one word unit representing the size of a Poplog item). Note that since the size in words of stack frames for particular procedures is implementation dependent, callstacklength may return different values on different implementations, (In general, the size of an individual stack frame varies with the number of local variables the procedure has (including ordinary lexical locals and dynamic locals). In all current implementations except SPARC (Sun4) machines, the approximate size is N+2, where N is the total number of locals; for SPARC it is max(L,16) + (N-L) where L is the number of type-1 lexical locals (for a description of which see REF * VMCODE). Thus SPARC stack frames are a minimum of 16 words.) pop_callstack_lim -> int [variable] int -> pop_callstack_lim This (active) variable holds an integer specifying the maximum length to which the call stack may expand (in word units as for callstacklength above). To accommodate very deeply nested recursive programs, it may be necessary to assign this variable a larger value. Note though, that since the size of a given procedure's stack frame is implementation dependent (as described under * callstacklength), any fixed value will not necessarily allow the same number of procedure calls on different machines. For this reason, the default value is always such as to allow for 2 to the power of 14 (16384) calls of a procedure with 3 lvars, regardless of the implementation; basing an increased value on the default (e.g. doubling it with: pop_callstack_lim * 2 -> pop_callstack_lim; etc) will therefore provide some measure of portability. When the size of the call stack exceeds pop_callstack_lim, the mishap 'RLE: RECURSION LIMIT (pop_callstack_lim) EXCEEDED' results; this may indicate that your program requires an increased limit. However, because of operating-system imposed memory limits, assigning too large a value to pop_callstack_lim may instead result in the mishap 'ROM: NO MORE MEMORY AVAILABLE (needing callstack space)' showing that Poplog cannot obtain more memory for the call stack. What can be done about this depends on the operating system. In VMS, all program memory comes out of the same pool, and so the mishap simply indicates that your program as a whole, including the call stack space, has reached the size permitted by your page file quota. In Unix systems, call stack space is allocated separately from other memory: on Berkeley Unix, the limit is given (and can be changed by) the cshell 'limit stack' command; on the HP Bobcat, there is a fixed limit of 512 Kwords. (See also * popmemlim and * pop_prolog_lim.) ---------------- 8 Miscellaneous ---------------- procedure_key -> key [constant] This constant holds the key structure for procedures (for details see REF * KEYS). --- C.all/ref/procedure --- Copyright University of Sussex 1995. All rights reserved.