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HELP VEDEMACS                                  Mark Rubinstein  May 1986
                                            Updated A. Schoter  Mar 1990
                                                       A.Sloman Oct 1990

VEDEMACS is a library that modifies both the terminal setting (on Unix
systems) and VED's key mapping to make VED respond to key presses in a
way that is similar to a subset of the UNIX EMACS editor. Full details
are given below. Some, but not all, of the facilities, will also work on

The specification is not guaranteed to be the same as all other versions

The older LIB EMACS, described in HELP EMACS is now superseded.

CONTENTS - (Use ENTER g to access sections)

 -- Introduction
 -- Making VEDEMACS commands available
 -- Some Necessary Notation and Definitions
 -- UNIX Control Characters Changed by LIB VEDEMACS
 -- Disclaimer
 -- Important differences between EMACS and POPLOG VEDEMACS
 -- Query-replace in VEDEMACS and VED
 -- "Mark" facility in VEDEMACS
 -- POPLOG extras
 -- ENTER Commands provided for LIB VEDEMACS
 -- Standard EMACS facilities
 -- Character Operations
 -- "Tracking" end of line (track_eol)
 -- Word Operations
 -- Line Operations
 -- Sentence Operations
 -- Paragraph Operations
 -- Getting Out
 -- Screen and Screen Operations
 -- Buffer and File Operations
 -- Help and Helper Functions
 -- Search
 -- Replace
 -- Region Operations
 -- Macro Operations
 -- The VED Dired directory browser [Unix Only]
 -- See also

-- Introduction -------------------------------------------------------

VED is a powerful editor with facilities that are in some ways similar
to those of Emacs and in some ways different. Experience shows that
there are some users who much prefer VED and some who much prefer Emacs.

For the latter it is possible to tailor VED to give a partial Emacs
emulation although some small details remain different. The library file
LIB VEDEMACS, which provides the emulation, can be compiled in your
vedinit.p file, or a saved image can be created with the EMACS emulation
built in, which speeds up initialisation. For help with the latter ask
your Poplog supplier. (Sample command files for creating saved images
start with "mk" in the directory $usepop/pop/com on Unix systems and
$usepop:[] in VMS.)

If you wish to have VED always run in Emacs mode, you can insert the

    uses vedemacs

at the end of your vedinit.p file in your $poplib directory (your login
directory by default). More information on tailoring VED and Poplog is
provided in the file HELP * INITIAL ($usepop/pop/help/initial on Unix
systems and $usepop:[]initial on VMS).

For many terminals VED will tailor itself to the screen without your
taking any action. In particular, it uses the termcap information file
on Unix systems.  However, you may find that it does not do exactly what
you need if you have a non-standard terminal or if you do not have a
termcap file with a suitable entry. In that case you may need to read
the files that describe the initialisation and terminal recognition


The former file is in the directory $usepop/pop/ref and the latter in

For more information on setting up the terminal, see the Poplog
Administrator's Guide.

-- Making VEDEMACS commands available ---------------------------------

If Vedemacs has not yet been set up for you, you can give the following
command to Pop-11,

    lib vedemacs
    uses vedemacs

Either of these commands can be put into your 'vedinit.p' file compiled
automatically when you start up VED. See HELP INITIAL.

Or, if you have already got into VED, you can set up VEDEMACS by doing

    ENTER lib vedemacs RETURN

-- VED logical functions ----------------------------------------------

There are several VED functions provided by default on most keyboards,
either mapped onto function keys, or else other key sequences, as
described below. The most commonly used functions have been given
shorthand names, summarised in the file HELP * LOGICAL_KEYS.

The terminology is not the same as that normally used in connection with
Emacs, the explanations should be clear to an experienced Emacs user.

Additional VED facilities are described in the files REF * VEDPROCS and

-- Some Necessary Notation and Definitions ----------------------------

VED, like Emacs, maps every character read in onto some function.
Occasionally several characters have to be read in before VED selects
the appropriate function.

If the character typed in has not been mapped onto a special function,
then it simply goes into the buffer (i.e. no special insert command is
needed). All of the printing characters have this role, unless they are
preceded by a special character, such as ESC or a control character.

Most commands are control characters or other characters prefixed by
ESCAPE or a CONTROL-X.  Escape is sometimes called META or ALTMODE in
EMACS. In VED documentation it is referred to as ESC or <ESC>.

There are also additional commands preceded by ESC-x and typed on the
command line. Any VED command described in REF * VEDCOMMS may be
invoked in this way.

Notation (similar to that used in VAX UNIX EMACS manual):

^       A control character ^F means "control F" or "CTRL-F". I.e.
        while holding down the CTRL key pres the F key.

ESC-    A two-character command sequence where the first character is
        ESCAPE (the ESC key usually).  ESC-F means "ESCAPE then F"

ESC-X string    A command designated "by hand".  "ESC-x help" means
        press "ESC" then "x" then "help" then RETURN

dot     EMACS term for the current cursor position in the edit buffer.

mark    A location in the buffer used by region commands, and set
        by a key sequence to save the current position.

region  The area between the location of dot and mark i.e. between
        current location and last set location.

-- UNIX Control Characters Changed by LIB VEDEMACS --------------------

On Berkeley UNIX and AT&T System V UNIX systems LIB * VEDEMACS changes
some of the control characters used by the operating system for system

^C will always exit the editor and Poplog (equivalent to ENTER qq in
VED) and ^G becomes the interrupt key. Where it is not possible to
re-set ^C (e.g. on VMS), the "qq" command can be used instead, i.e.

^S and ^Q are changed by LIB VEDEMACS so that they no longer stop and
start output, as they have special EMACS functions -- when the Unix
system and network software permits.

In some contexts (e.g. remote login, or on VMS) this doesn't work, and
alternative commands are made available (ESC-s as an alternative to ^S,
and the "qc" command as an alternative to ^Q), as described below.
(Standard VED does not use ^S and ^Q, so that they remain available for
flow control.)

-- Disclaimer ---------------------------------------------------------

Please note that LIB VEDEMACS does not purport to be a complete EMACS
implementation. It is merely intended to enable an experienced EMACS
user to feel reasonably comfortable starting to use VED, by providing
the same default functions for most of the frequently used key
sequences. Many of the fancier things done in EMACS, such as defining
new commands, have to be done differently in VED. See the VED User
Guide, and the online HELP * VED file for an overview of documentation
on VED facilities.

-- Important differences between EMACS and POPLOG VEDEMACS ------------

This section is for experienced EMACS users.

a. The ^@ character (i.e. ASCII 0 - the "null" character) is ignored
   by VED because it is used as a padding character by some terminals
   (and hence VED's character tables are indexed from 1 upwards).

   So the key sequence to set the EMACS "mark" is not ^@ but ESC-@ or ^^
   (i.e. CTRL-^). This command "remembers" the current cursor location,
   for use with "region" commands.

b. ^S (Search) does not always work as required via networks (or on
   VMS), so the sequence ESC-s is provided as an optional alternative
   search command in VEDEMACS.

   There is not, at present, any regular expression search. (See
   HELP * VEDSEARCH for information about "pattern" characters in
   VED search strings.)

c. ^Q (Quote character) also does not always work, so, as an optional
   alternative, the COMMAND "qc" is provided (in the form of the VED
   procedure ved_qc, invoked from VEDEMACS as "ESC-x qc RETURN". This
   waits for you to type in a character then inserts it in the VED
   buffer. As an alternative the VED "ENTER ic" command can be used.
   See HELP * IC.

d. ^Y (yank last thing killed) may not work on VMS. So an alternative
   yank command is provided: ^X-y

e. The ESC-? command, for obtaining help, is replaced by ESC-#. This
   is because on many terminals emulating VT100 or VT220 functionality,
   VED sets the numeric keypad into a mode in which it can be used for a
   variety of useful functions, e.g. moving the cursor in 8 directions,
   and using ESC-? would disable this. (See HELP * VT100KEYS). Users
   who want ESC-? to have its standard Emacs function can put the
   following line into their vedinit.p file

        vedsetkey('\^[?', vedentervedinsertstring(%'vh '%));

f. The full kill-ring mechanism is not provided. VED remembers the last
   marked range deleted (retrievable using the "y" command), the
   last full line deleted (retrieved using "yankl"), the last part
   line or word deleted (retrieved using "yankw") and the last text
   portion removed via ved_cut or ^W in EMACS, (retrieved using
   "splice"). (See HELP * YANK) The VEDEMACS delete procedures set the
   appropriate retrieve procedure to be the next thing invoked by the
    ^Y command.

g. The word case-change commands move the cursor past the word.

h. The move word right and move word left commands move the cursor
   up to the next word if in a space, or past the word to the near end
   of the next word if already in a word. This means that it is always
   possible to position the cursor at either the left or the right end
   of a word using only these two functions.

-- Query-replace in VEDEMACS and VED ----------------------------------

The "query-replace" command (ESC-q) does not give the user the same
set of options as the standard VED query-replace options described in
HELP * VEDSEARCH. Instead it conforms to standard EMACS options as
described under Query replace below (i.e. SPACE n . or ^G)

This is done by modifying the VED query search procedure ved_s. The
orignal version is available as oldved_s, and standard VED behaviour can
be restored by giving the following command after the command to load
lib vedemacs:

    oldved_s -> ved_s;

-- "Mark" facility in VEDEMACS ----------------------------------------

Up to V.13 Poplog the VEDEMACS "mark" facility used the VED "marked
range" facility which allowed only complete lines to be marked, as
described in HELP * MARK.

This is now fixed. The "set mark" command (ESC-@ or ^^) records the
exact cursor location, including the position in the line.

In order to see where the mark was set, type ^X-^X (i.e. CTRL-X
twice), then do it again. The sequence ^X-^X swaps the current position
with the "mark" position. So the cursor will alternate between the two
positions, making them visible.

^W will kill the text between the two positions, and the next ^Y will
re-insert it where the cursor is. (These use the VED facilities ved_cut
and ved_splice.)

The section on POPLOG facilities below indicates how to set a standard
VED marked range.

-- POPLOG extras -------------------------------------------------------

The following items are provided in POPLOG EMACS
 ESC-x   Enter the command line (like ENTER in VED)

 ^^      PUSH current location onto VED position stack (VEDPUSHKEY)
         (mark current location, in emacs)

 ^X-^D   Load the marked range  (like ENTER lmr)

 ^X-^E   Load the current procedure (like ENTER lcp)

 ^X-f    Mark current line as first line of VED's marked range
         (VEDMARKLO) See HELP * MARK

 ^X-l or
 ^X-@    Mark current line as the last line of the VED's marked range

-- ENTER Commands provided for LIB VEDEMACS ---------------------------

Standard VED commands are described in REF * VEDCOMMS. The following
are made available by LIB VEDEMACS.

(Note that a Pop-11 procedure called ved_xxx is invoked as ENTER xxx,
with additional facilities described in HELP * VEDCOMMANDS.) So ved_hug
is invoked as ENTER hug.

ved_hug (With optional argument "on" or "off")
      Toggles end of line hugging, on or off.

ved_qc (In case ^Q does not work)
      Waits for next character to be typed in, then inserts it in
      buffer. (See also HELP * IC)

There are many other features provided by VED, such as, directory search
lists (see HELP *VEDSEARCHLIST), automatic adaptation to different types
of files (see HELP *VEDFILETYPES), "compile marked range", automatic
recognition of which compiler to use, "immediate mode" (See HELP *IM),
and VED's ability to remember the last 60 commands typed on the command
line so that they can easily be redone, possibly after minor editing
(see HELP *VEDCOMMANDS), a tailorable cross-reference mechanism for
interactive browsing (see HELP *VEDGETSYSFILE). VED provides standard
customisations for a range of keyboards. See the list in HELP *INITIAL.

For an overview of online documentation on VED see HELP * VED.

For an overview of commands see REF * VEDCOMMS. For an overview of VED
KEY functions see HELP * VEDKEYS. REF * VEDPROCS and REF * VEDVARS give
information about additional procedures and global variables used to
control VED.

VED is in fact simply a collection of POP-11 procedures, which can
easily be extended, and many of which can be redefined by users.

-- Standard EMACS facilities ------------------------------------------

The remainder of this file defines the standard EMACS facilities
provided by LIB VEDEMACS.

-- Character Operations ------------------------------------------------

^B      Move Left (Back)
^F      Move Right (Forward)
^P      Move up (Previous)  (See next section)
^N      Move Down (Next)    (See next section)
^H or BS or DEL (or RUBOUT)
        Delete left
^T      Transpose previous 2 characters (ht_ -> th_)
^Q      Literally inserts (quotes)the next character typed (e.g. ^Q-^L)
        (If ^Q doesn't work, use the "qc" command)
^U-n    Provide a numeric argument of n to the command that follows (n
        defaults to 4.  E.g. try ^U-^N and ^U-^U-^F)
^M or CR or RETURN
        insert newline.
^J or NL or LF or LINEFEED
        insert newline followed by an indent

-- "Tracking" end of line (track_eol) ---------------------------------

The default setting is not to "hug" the right hand edge of text, so that
moves up and down beyond the text are possible. This default can be
over-ridden, to conform to standard EMACS by giving the command

    ENTER track_eol    (NB use underscore, not hyphen.)
    ENTER hug

The command can be given an optional argument "off" or "on" to switch
end of line tracking off or on. If given no argument it simply toggles
tracking on or off.

(In EMACS the command is track-eol but this is inconsistent with the
itemising rules of some Poplog languages.)

-- Word Operations -----------------------------------------------------

ESC-b   Move left (Back)
ESC-f   Move right (Forward)
ESC-d   Delete word right
ESC-h   Delete word left
ESC-c   Capitalize current word (i.e. first character only), then move
        to next word.
ESC-l   Lowercase whole word
ESC-u   Uppercase whole word
ESC-^   Invert case of word

-- Line Operations -----------------------------------------------------

^A      Move to the beginning of the line
^E      Move to the end of the line
^O      Open up a line for typing
^K      Kill from dot to end of line (^Y yanks it back at dot)
^X-K    Kill from dot to beginning of the line (^Y yanks it back)
^X-^K   Kill whole of current line (^Y yanks it back if non-empty)

-- Sentence Operations ------------------------------------------------

ESC-a   Move to start of current sentence or previous sentence
ESC-e   Move to start of next sentence
  Sentences are taken to be separated by one of ".", "?", "!"
  followed by whitespace or a bracket, or else by blank lines.
  All lines starting with "." are ignored, i.e. they are assumed to
  be within-sentence formatting commands.

-- Paragraph Operations ------------------------------------------------

ESC-j   Justify the current paragraph
ESC-[   Move to beginning of current or previous paragraph
ESC-]   Move to beginning of the next paragraph
  If the last two are used repeatedly they go to the next paragraph
  each time.

A paragraph boundary is either a blank line, or an indented line, or
a line starting with "." (for use with troff/nroff formatting).

-- Saving text and getting out of VED ---------------------------------

^X-^S   Save the file being worked on
^X-^W   Write the current buffer into a file with a different name
^X-^M   Write out all modified files
^X-Q or
^X-^Q   Quit the current file with an option to write it (same as ^X-d)
ESC-^X  Write and compile all program files, then exit to POP
or ESC-^C
or ^X-^C    Finish by exiting to the shell or DCL
^_      Recursively push (escape) to a new shell (spawn new shell)

-- Screen and Screen Operations ----------------------------------------

^V      Show next screen page
ESC-V   Show previous screen page
^L      Redisplay screen
^Z      Scroll screen up
            (NOT available to Unix users who use ^Z as the suspend
ESC-Z   Scroll screen down
ESC-!   Move the line dot (cursor) is on to the top of the screen
ESC-,   Move cursor to beginning of window
ESC-.   Move cursor to end of window
^X-1    Resize current window
^X-d    Quit current buffer

^X 4 b  Move cursor to next window

^X-p    Move cursor to previous window (vedswapfiles)

^X-0    Move to previous window and switch windowsize.

ESC-^V  Display the next screen page in the other window
^X-^Z   Shrink window
            (NOT available to Unix users who use ^Z as the suspend
^X-z    Enlarge window

-- Buffer and File Operations ------------------------------------------

^Y      Yank back the last thing killed (This may invoke ved_y,
        ved_yankl, ved_yankw, or ved_splice, depending on what was
        killed last! See "delete" operations.)
^X-y    available as equivalent to ^Y
^X-^V   Quit the current file and get another for editing
^X-^R   Empty current file then read new one into current buffer
^X-^I   Insert a file at dot (current location).
^X-^O   Select a different buffer (it must already exist)
^X-B    Same as ^X-^O
^X-b    Same as ^X-^O
^X-^F   Select a different buffer (it need not pre-exist)
^X-^B   Display a list of available buffers
ESC-<   Move to the top of the current buffer
ESC->   Move to the end of the current buffer

-- Help and Helper Functions -------------------------------------------

^G      Abort anything at any time
^X-?    Returns information on the next key sequence entered
ESC-#   Find help about the given command name (try ESC-# deof)
        (See comment above about ESC-?)
^X-h    This works like ESC-h in standard VED as described in
        HELP * DOCUMENTATION under "Searching for cross references".
        I.e. if the cursor is to the left of a cross reference entry
        (e.g. on the asterisk above) then ^X-h will fetch the
        documentation file referred to (i.e. HELP DOCUMENTATION in the
        above example). ESC-n will search for the next cross reference
        within the current file.
^X-H    like ^X h

-- Search --------------------------------------------------------------

The following commands prompt for a search string. Type in the string
and then press RETURN

^S      Search forward          (If ^S doesn't work, use ESC-s)
^R      Search backward

See HELP * VEDSEARCH for full details concerning search strings, etc.
(See comment above about regular expressions.)

-- Replace -------------------------------------------------------------

The following commands prompt for a pair of search and replacement
strings, separated by a "delimiter" as described in HELP * VEDSEARCH.
End with RETURN

ESC-r   Globally replace occurrences of one string with another

ESC-q   Query replace, one string with another

   The latter command gives you the option to accept or reject the
   proposed replacement, and to specify that it should continue with
   further replacements or not. Type one of the following characters:

     SPACE  - do the replacement and continue searching for more

     n      - don't do the replacement, but continue searching

     .      - do the replacement, and terminate search

     ^G     - Don't do the replacement, and terminate search

To restore the standard VED search-and-replace options (RETURN, DEL, y,
n) do the following after loading lib vedemacs:

    oldved_s -> ved_s;

-- Region Operations ---------------------------------------------------

ESC-@ (or ^^) Set the mark (uses vedpositionpush)

^X-^X   Interchange dot and mark (i.e. go to the other end of the
        region). The cursor jumps to show the change, so this command
        can be used twice to indicate the current region.

^W      Kill region (^Y - or the command "splice" yanks it back at dot)
        (This deletes only the text between the mark and dot positions.
        The mark and dot positions should be thought of as being between
        the location shown by the cursor and the previous character.)

-- Macro Operations ----------------------------------------------------

^X-(    Propmts for a character key and then starts remembering
        keystrokes, ie. start defining a keyboard macro
^X-)    Stop remembering keystrokes, ie. end the definition
^X-e followed by a character
        Execute remembered keystrokes assigned to given character key,
        ie. execute the keyboard macro

-- Automatic filename completion --------------------------------------

VED has a library that provides automatic filename completion, including
showing you possible options available if you have typed part of a file

Full details are available in HELP * VEDFILECOMPLETE. By default the
library maps the file completion facility onto the key sequence ESC 3.

If you put the following into your vedinit.p file, then the library will
be "autoloaded" the first time you try to use it by typing ESC 3

    vedset keys
        "filecomplete" = esc 3

(You may map it onto a different key sequence if you wish.)

-- The VED Dired directory browser [Unix Only] ------------------------

This is loosely modelled on the EMACS dired facility. For full details

    See HELP * DIRED [Unix only]

Note that if you use the VED dired facility then three key sequences are
taken over as described in HELP * DIRED, i.e ^X^D ^X^X and ^X^Z

-- See also -----------------------------------------------------------


--- C.all/help/vedemacs
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1993. All rights reserved. ----------