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HELP PROLOG                                    Chris Mellish, July 1983
                                Rewritten Simon Nichols, September 1993

An introduction to the Poplog Prolog subsystem.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Introduction

  2   Running Prolog

  3   Initialisation

  4   Command Line Arguments

  5   Prolog and Pop-11

  6   Related documentation

1  Introduction

Poplog Prolog is an Edinburgh-style Prolog system modelled on the "core"
Prolog system described in "Programming in Prolog" by Clocksin and
Mellish (published by Springer Verlag, 1981). This is broadly similar to
DEC-10 Prolog in syntax and semantics, though not identical: there are
differences both in syntax (described in HELP * SYNTAX) and semantics
(described in HELP * POPLOG).

Note: most of  the  documentation  files cross-referenced  here  are
directly available only when running the Prolog subsystem. To read the
files outside of Prolog, use the "<ENTER> prolog" command from Ved. For

    <ENTER> prolog help poplog

    <ENTER> prolog help syntax

To see a list of the available Prolog help files, use the Ved command:

    <ENTER> prolog help plogindex

For information about using the Poplog editor Ved in conjunction with
Prolog, see HELP * VED.

2  Running Prolog

Prolog is supplied as a Poplog saved-image. To run it, give "prolog" as
an argument to the Pop-11 command invoked from the shell or DCL, as

    $ pop11 +prolog

Most sites should have a command abbreviation installed for this which
will allow you to type just:

    $ prolog

instead. In either case, Prolog will print up a version banner, followed
by the word "Setprolog" and the interactive top-level query mode prompt
"?-", something like this:

    Sussex Poplog (Version 15.03 Thu Jun 20 16:20:20 BST 1996)
    Copyright (c) 1982-1996 University of Sussex. All rights reserved.
    Prolog (Version 3.2)


"Setprolog" is printed whenever the Prolog system is reset: on start-up,
or after an error or an interrupt. The prompt indicates that Prolog is
waiting for new input in query mode (see HELP * COMPILE): you can then
type either a goal to be evaluated or a Prolog command.

If you enter a goal which Prolog can prove, it prints out the values of
the variables in the instance it proved (assuming that there are
variables in the goal). You can then type ";" and return to ask for
alternatives, or anything else (terminated by <RETURN>) to say that you
are satisfied.

Commands are not a part of Prolog: they are an addition to Prolog to
allow access to features of the Poplog system. Useful commands to try

    - help <topic>
        Displays documentation on the given topic

    - source <predicate name>
        Edits the definition of the named predicate

    - ved <file>
        Invokes the editor on a file

    - bye
        Exits Prolog

The full set of commands is described in HELP * COMMANDS.

A short Prolog session invoked from the operating system might appear as

    $ prolog

    Sussex Poplog (Version 15.03 Thu Jun 20 16:20:20 BST 1996)
    Copyright (c) 1982-1996 University of Sussex. All rights reserved.
    Prolog (Version 3.2)

    ?- [-listpreds].                % reconsult the file ''

    ?- append(X, Y, [a,b,c,d,e]).   % a goal for Prolog to prove
    X = []
    Y = [a, b, c, d, e] ? ;         % ";" means "find alternatives"

    X = [a]
    Y = [b, c, d, e] ?              % <RETURN> says "that's enough"


    ?- bye                          % "bye" means "exit from Poplog"


For detailed information about compiling files in Prolog, both inside
and outside Ved, see HELP * COMPILE.

3  Initialisation

You can tailor the Prolog environment to your own taste by creating a
file called "" containing code which you would like executed
every time you run Prolog. This could involve precompiling useful
library files, executing directives or queries (see HELP * DIRECTIVES),
or in general anything that is valid when reconsulting a file (see
HELP * COMPILE). Prolog will try to compile the "" file each time
it starts up: the file is sought first in your POPLIB directory, and
then failing that, in the current directory.

This initialisation behaviour is the same as that of other parts of the
Poplog system and is described more fully in HELP * INITIAL. Prolog also
compiles the "init.p" files described in that file for general Poplog
initialisation, and an "" file in the POPSYS directory for
site-wide bug fixes or patches.

4  Command Line Arguments

The Prolog image respects all the standard Poplog command-line arguments
described fully in the introduction to REF * SYSTEM. Of these, the most
useful to Prolog users are:

        initialises the X interface (where applicable). Currently there
        is no support for driving X directly from Prolog, but the
        X-based version of the editor (XVed) does become available.

        suppresses run-time actions: recommended when making saved

    ved <file>
    im <file>
    help <topic>
        invoke the corresponding VED (or XVed) commands.


    $ prolog %x ved
        Starts up Prolog and immediately invokes XVed on the file

5  Prolog and Pop-11

From inside Prolog you can get to the Pop-11 top-level either with the

    ?- pop11

or by invoking the predicate prolog_language/1 with the atom 'pop11'
as argument:

    ?- prolog_language(pop11).

See HELP * PROLOG_LANGUAGE for details.

To return, you can invoke the Prolog predicate prolog_language/1 from
Pop-11 using the Pop-11 syntax word "?-" which invokes a Prolog goal as
a query:

    : ?- prolog_language(top).

See HELP * POPTOPLOG for information about using ":-" and "?-" from

You can also return to Prolog from Pop-11 using the Pop-11 syntax word

    : prolog

but this also does a Setprolog, resetting Prolog and aborting any
computation: thus, it is not to be recommended except for top-level,
interactive use. Note that if you type "prolog" to the Pop-11 prompt in
a system which does not include Prolog, the Prolog system will be
automatically loaded.

For help in writing mixed-language programs in Pop-11 and Prolog see

6  Related documentation

    An overview of the contents of the Poplog Prolog HELP files

    A List of all of the HELP files currently in the Prolog system

    A chronological summary of changes to the Prolog system

    An overview of Prolog library packages

    Using the Poplog editor Ved in conjunction with Prolog

    An introduction to Poplog documentation and how to access it

--- C.all/help/prolog
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1996. All rights reserved.