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HELP PARAMETERS                                   Aaron Sloman, Dec 1989
                                         Updated Simon Nichols, Dec 1990

Running POP11 with parameters.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

 -- Introduction
 -- 1. Invoking a saved image from the SHELL
 -- 1.1. Search path for saved images: popsavepath
 -- 1.2. Additional arguments to saved images
 -- 1.3. Actions performed when a saved image starts up
 -- 1.4. Invoking layered saved images
 -- 1.5. Changing $popsavepath
 -- 2. Special arguments
 -- 3. Executing an expression specified on the command line
 -- 4. Invoking a program file from the command line
 -- 4.1. Changing $popcomppath
 -- Related Documentation

-- Introduction -------------------------------------------------------

POP11, like other UNIX programs, can be invoked from the SHELL with
command line arguments. These arguments fall into four categories,
distinguished by the flag character which is the first character of the

    1) An argument beginning with `+` or `-` causes a saved image to be

    2) An argument beginning with `%` modifies POP11 startup behaviour.

    3) A string beginning with `:` causes the remainder of the string
       (after the colon) to be interpreted as a string of source text to
       be executed.

    4) Any other argument is treated as the name of a program file to be

These four kinds of arguments are described in detail below.


1) It is possible to have a single argument list containing arguments
   of kinds 1, 2 and 3 or of kinds 1, 2 and 4, but kinds 3 and 4 are
   mutually exclusive.

2) The initialisation files ('init.p', '', 'init.lsp', '',
   'vedinit.p', etc.) are not compiled automatically if arguments of
   kinds 1, 3 or 4 are supplied. Therefore, user programs (including
   saved images) can decide whether to compile them or not; see section
   1 for details. The %noinit flag can be used to suppress the
   compilation of initialisation files when no argument is supplied; see
   section 2 for details.

-- 1. Invoking a saved image from the SHELL ---------------------------

If POP11 is run with a command line argument starting with `-` or `+`
then it will try to restore a saved image. For example,

    pop11 -myimage


    pop11 +myimage

will do this. The latter form is preferred, as it is now compatible
with the syntax for invoking a POPLOG saved image in VMS.

Either command will make POP11 search for a saved image called
'myimage.psv', in directories that are specified in an environment
variable called $popsavepath.

If the saved image name contains a full path name then $popsavepath is
not used. If the name ends in '.psv' then the suffix is not added.

Thus the following uses a full path name, so

    pop11 +$HOME/lib/myimage.psv

it will try only to restore 'myimage.psv' located in the user's
directory $HOME/lib (the subdirectory lib of their home directory), and
will ignore $popsavepath.

-- 1.1. Search path for saved images: popsavepath ---------------------

$popsavepath is a list of directory pathnames, separated by colons An
empty component (":" at the beginning or end, or "::" in the middle)
means the current working directory.  The default value for $popsavepath
(set up by '$popcom/popenv') is


This starts with an empty string before the first ":" so the first place
to look is the current directory. E.g.

    pop11 -myimage
    pop11 +myimage

will try to restore the image 'myimage.psv' in the current directory,
and if it isn't there it will look in the user's library directory
($poplib), and if there isn't one it will look in the local library
directory $poplocalbin which defaults to


(to be created by local system manager). If it cannot be found there, it
is sought in the POP11 library directory ($popsavelib) which is normally


-- 1.2. Additional arguments to saved images --------------------------

When a saved image is invoked, additional arguments can be specified,
separated by spaces. A list of strings containing these arguments will
be available in *POPARGLIST when the image is restored. For example, the

    pop11 +myimage arg1 arg2 arg3

Will cause -poparglist- to be the list

    ['arg1' 'arg2' 'arg3' ]

-- 1.3. Actions performed when a saved image starts up ----------------

When a saved image is restored it does not automatically compile either
the user's 'init.p', or the SYSTEM version in $popsys. Compilation can
be forced by invoking the procedure -sysinitcomp-. This can be specified
in the command that creates the saved image, e.g.

    if syssave('...') then

as the instructions between "then" and "endif" are executed whenever the
saved image is restored. Alternatively various initialisation files can
compiled, if they exist, using -trycompile-, which is like -compile-
except that it returns a boolean indicating whether the file existed or

Similar start-up procedures can be specified with layered saved images
created using -sys_lock_system-, described in REF * SYSTEM.

-- 1.4. Invoking layered saved images ---------------------------------

Saved images created using -sys_lock_system- can be used as a basis for
creating new saved images which will not duplicate the contents of the
original image. (On some versions of UNIX the locked image can even be
mapped into shared memory when run by different users.) The standard
POPLOG saved images, such as prolog, clisp and pml, are created as
locked images.

If 'image1.psv' is a locked image, and 'image2.psv' is another locked
image created relative to it, and 'image3.psv' is created relative to
'image2.psv', then the command

    pop11 +image1 +image2 +image3 arg1 arg2 arg3

can be used to restore 'image3.psv' with ['arg1' 'arg2' 'arg3'] assigned
to -poparglist-.

For example, the command

    pop11 +prolog +logic

runs the Prolog image then restores the saved image contained in the
file 'logic.psv'. The latter file is created by the SHELL command file

In fact this can be abbreviated to

    prolog +logic

because 'pop_prolog' is defined as a suitable environment variable on
startup in the file '$popcom/popenv'. It uses the abbreviation mechanism
described for Unix systems in HELP * INITIAL.

-- 1.5. Changing $popsavepath -----------------------------------------

You can change the default search path for saved images simply by
changing the $popsavepath environment variable. In the C shell csh, this
is done by the setenv command. For example:

    setenv popsavepath ~/aaa\:~/aaa/bbb\:$popsavelib\:\:~/ccc

will make POP11 look for saved images first in a sub-directory 'aaa' in
your home directory, then in a sub-sub-directory 'aaa/bbb' of your home
directory, then in the POP11 library directory, then in the current
working directory and finally in a sub-directory 'ccc' of your home

Note: the colons have to be preceeded by a backslash to stop the C shell
from interpreting them; the `\` characters are stripped off before
assigning the string to popsavepath, as you can see if you print the
value of the variable, thus:

    echo $popsavepath

-- 2. Special arguments -----------------------------------------------

POP11 recognises the following special arguments, all of which begin
with a '%' character, and cause the associated actions to be performed:

    %nobanner   suppresses printing of the banner

    %noinit     prevents compilation of initialisation files

    %nort       prevents execution of "runtime actions"

    %x          tells POP11 to start-up under X

The %x argument may optionally be followed by a bracketed list of X
arguments, which is assigned to the variable -popunderx-.

For example,

    pop11 %nobanner %x \( -display cx010:0.0 \)

causes POP11 to startup under X without printing the banner. The
variable -popunderx- will have the value:

    ['-display' 'cx010:0.0']

These X specific arguments may be passed on to the X server.

See REF * SYSTEM for full details.

-- 3. Executing an expression specified on the command line -----------

If POP11 is invoked with a string starting with `:`, the string after
the colon is treated as a POP11 expression and is compiled and executed
as soon as POP11 starts up. POP11 then exits. The string will normally
have to be enclosed in double quotes to prevent it being interpreted by
the SHELL. For example, the following will print the sum of 99 and 55:

    pop11 ":99 + 55 =>"

To prevent POP11 from exiting as soon as it has evaluated the
expression, the expression can assign -setpop- to -interrupt- (or call a
procedure which does this). For example, the following will print the
sum of 99 and 55 and then perform a setpop, leaving you at the POP11

    pop11 ":setpop -> interrupt; 99 + 55 =>"

When VED is invoked from the shell, -setpop- is assigned to -interrupt-.
However, argument(s) supplied on the command line are not compiled
before entering ved or after leaving it; instead they is treated as the
name of a file. Hence,

    ved ":99 + 55 =>" temp

will create a file called ':99 + 55 => temp'. Interrupting VED will
cause a return to POP11.

When POP11 is run in this mode, i.e. with an executable POP11 command as
a parameter, it does not compile either the user's 'init.p', or the
SYSTEM version in $popsys. Compilation can be forced by calling
-sysinitcomp-. Thus

    pop11 ":sysinitcomp(); ved file"

will start POP11 off with the proper initialisations, and run the editor
on the file 'file'.

In the C shell an alias can be used to abbreviate this sort of command.
In other Unix shells it is achieved in a roundabout fashion, described

-- 4. Invoking a program file from the command line --------------------

Invoking POP11 as follows:

    pop11 file arg1 arg2 arg3

will cause POP11 to search in the directories specified by the
environment variable $popcomppath for a program file whose name is
'file.p'. The file will be compiled, with the POP11 variable *POPARGLIST
bound to a list of the form:

    ['arg1' 'arg2' 'arg3']

If the first argument has a full path name then $popcomppath is not
used, and if the name already ends in '.p' then '.p' is not added.

-- 4.1. Changing $popcomppath -----------------------------------------

This search path is set up in the same way as $popsavepath, and in the
same login initialisation command file. Its default value is set up in
'$popcom/popenv' thus:

    setenv popcomppath ':$poplib:$poplocalauto:$popautolib:$popliblib'

The leading colon ":" indicates an initial null path name, standing for
the current directory. Thus, this search path specifies that the current
directory is to be searched first, followed by the user's $poplib, then
$popautolib, $poplocalauto and finally $popliblib. It can be altered in
your '.login' file in the same way as $popsavepath (see above).

-- Related Documentation ----------------------------------------------

HELP * SYSSAVE      - creating saved images
HELP * SYSRESTORE   - running them
REF  * SYSTEM       - general information on running Poplog, saved
                      images etc.
REF  * sys_lock_system  - layered saved images
HELP * INITIAL      - Tailoring POPLOG and its subsystems, via login
                      command files, init.p vedinit.p etc.
HELP * INITIAL.EX   - some examples of users' tailoring files
DOC  * SYSSPEC      - overview of Poplog's directory structure
DOC  * PUG          - Poplog User Guide

--- C.unix/help/parameters ---------------------------------------------
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1990. All rights reserved. ----------