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HELP INCHARITEM                                Updated A.Sloman Dec 1986

    incharitem(<character repeater>) -> <item_repeater>;
    incharitem(discin(<filename>)) -> <item_repeater>;

INCHARITEM takes a character repeater and creates an item repeater that
produces items derived from the stream of characters produced.

CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

 -- Character repeaters
 -- Item repeaters
 -- Using incharitem
 -- End of file indicator: TERMIN
 -- Using incharitem with discin
 -- Using incharitem with the compiler and proglist
 -- Making an item repeater from a string
 -- Making item repeaters from the VED buffer
 -- Altering the itemisation rules using item_chartype
 -- Related Documentation

-- Character repeaters ------------------------------------------------

A character repeater is a procedure that takes no arguments and returns
a character every time it is called, or returns the special object
TERMIN if there are no more characters to be read.

Examples of system character repeaters are * CHARIN, * RAWCHARIN,
* VEDINASCII, and VEDREPEATER, described below.

-- Item repeaters -----------------------------------------------------

An item repeater is a procedure that takes no arguments, but returns a
POPLOG data object each time it is called. Usually item repeaters are
created from character repeaters, using INCHARITEM, though they need not

An item repeater produced by INCHARITEM will, each time it is called,
get characters from the character repeater, and analyse them into text
items, according to POP-11's 'lexical analysis' rules described in

There are different classes of item that can be represented in a
character stream, and which such an item repeater can return: words,
strings, integers, bigintegers, decimals, ddecimals, rationals, complex
numbers. For full details see REF * ITEMISE. These are not all the kinds
of data that can be created by a POP-11 program. (See REF * DATA).

-- Using incharitem ---------------------------------------------------

When applied to *CHARIN, INCHARITEM produces an item repeater which
reads items from the terminal. For example:

    repeat 3 times charin()=> endrepeat;  ;;; prompts terminal and waits
    : abc                                 ;;; type in three characters
    ** 97
    ** 98
    ** 99

    vars itemrep;
    incharitem(charin) -> itemrep;      ;;; ITEMREP is an item repeater

    itemrep() =>     ;;; prompts and waits for an item to be typed in.
    : the
    ** the           ;;; prints it out

    itemrep() =>
    ** cat

-- End of file indicator: TERMIN --------------------------------------

If the user types the "end-of-file" character (usually CTRL-D on Unix
machines; CTRL-Z on VMS), then the character repeater CHARIN returns the
unique object TERMIN. In that case the item repeater does the same,
indicating that there are no more items to be returned.

POP-11 repeaters typically produce the unique object * TERMIN to
indicate the end of the stream. When the character repeater given to
INCHARITEM returns TERMIN then so does the item repeater created by
INCHARITEM. If it is used to create PROGLIST, then at that point


will be true.

-- Using incharitem with discin ---------------------------------------

When applied to the result of * DISCIN(<FILENAME>), INCHARITEM produces
an item repeater which reads items from a file. E.g. if 'numbers' is a
file containing numbers separated by spaces and newlines, then to
create a repeater which reads in a new number every time it is called,
    vars numrep;
    incharitem(discin('numbers')) -> numrep;

Then if invoked repeatedly NUMREP returns numbers from the file, and
finally returns TERMIN, when the file is exhausted. If called again
after that, it will produce an error.

-- Using incharitem with the compiler and proglist --------------------

The POP-11 compiler reads items from * PROGLIST, usually a dynamic list
created by taking a character repeater R, creating an item repeater,
then using *PDTOLIST to make a dynamic list, e.g.

    pdtolist(incharitem(R)) -> proglist;

R might, for example, be CHARIN, or the result of discin(<file name>)

* ITEMREAD and * READITEM are examples of item repeaters built in to
POP-11. They are used to read in items from * PROGLIST, the current
stream of items to be compiled. While a file is being compiled, the
current input stream underlying PROGLIST comes from the file, so that if
these procedures are run during the compilation process, they will not
read from the terminal, but from the file.

Having created the dynamic list, PROGLIST, in this way it can be handed
to the POP-11 compiler by applying POPVAL to it. So a file 'prog.p' can
be compiled thus:


This can be abbreviated to:

Further details are described in REF * PROGLIST and REF * POPCOMPILE.

-- Making an item repeater from a string  -----------------------------

*STRINGIN can be applied to a string to produce a character repeater for
the characters in the string. INCHARITEM can then be used to produce an
item repeater, e.g.


-- Making item repeaters from the VED buffer --------------------------

The procedure VEDREPEATER returns the character under the cursor in the
current VED buffer and moves the cursor one character on.  At the end of
a line it returns the newline character and moves the cursor to the next
line. Hence

creates a procedure that when called returns the next POP-11 item
to the right of the cursor, and moves the cursor on.

The procedure VEDRANGEREPEATER takes two line numbers L1 and L2 and
creates a character repeater for the portion of the current VED buffer
from lines L1 to L2 inclusive. In fact it makes a copy of that portion
of the buffer, so that the characters produced are not affected by
subsequent changes in that portion of the buffer. So lines 10 to 20
inclusive of the current VED buffer could be compiled thus:


or, since COMPILE can take a character repeater:


-- Altering the itemisation rules using item_chartype -----------------

It is sometimes convenient, e.g. when using these facilities to define a
new compiler, to alter the rules for dividing up a stream of characters
into items. To some extent this is possible by changing the internal
tables that determine how the itemiser treats incoming characters. The
characters are divided into different classes for this purpose, and the
procedure * ITEM_CHARTYPE makes it possible to find out which class a
character is in, or to change the class, either globally or for a
particular character repeater.

-- Related Documentation ----------------------------------------------

HELP *ASCII         - on character codes
HELP *CHARIN        - reads in a character from the terminal
HELP *CHAROUT       - outputs a character to the terminal
HELP *DISCIN        - creates a character repeater for a file or device
HELP *ITEMREAD      - reads in items, expands macros and attempts autoloading
HELP *ITEM_CHARTYPE - on finding the class number associated with a character
HELP *NEXTCHAR      - on altering the internal buffers of repeaters
HELP *OUTCHARITEM   - converts character consumer into item consumer
HELP *PROGLIST      - more on proglist and macros
HELP *READITEM      - similar to ITEMREAD, but no macro expansion or autoload
HELP *STRINGIN      - creates a character repeater for a string
HELP *STRINGS       - on character strings

REF *PROGLIST       - the use of PROGLIST
REF *ITEMISE        - details on itemisation, and related procedures
REF *SYSIO          - details of I/O procedures

--- C.all/help/incharitem ----------------------------------------------
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1992. All rights reserved. ----------