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HELP FORMAT David Roberts, October 1982 lib format; === VED COMMANDS TO FORMAT TEXT FILES ================================== The following are commands to assist with simple on-screen formatting of text files in ved. For more elaborate (but non-interactive) formatting, the RUNOFF program is probably more appropriate. Although these commands will be autoloaded as necessary, they can all be loaded at once with lib format; or, in VED <enter> lib format _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER LCOL and ENTER RCOL provide convenient ways of setting the margins. To avoid ambiguity about where 'the margins' are, I'll refer throughout this help file to the 'leftmost' and 'rightmost' columns: these are the screen columns which are, respectively, as far left and as far right as text is ordinarily able to stand. ('Ordinarily' because there are ways to overrun the margins if you want to.) ENTER LCOL (mnemonic LEFTMOST COLUMN) sets the leftmost column. The command can be used with or without an argument. If no argument is given, the column the cursor is standing on becomes the leftmost column. If the command is followed by a number, that column becomes the leftmost column. If the command is followed by '?' the margin setting is unchanged but the command line tells you what the leftmost column is. (ENTER MARGIN is similar, but if given a numerical argument understands it as the number of column positions BEFORE the leftmost column.) ENTER RCOL (mnemonic RIGHTMOST COLUMN) does the equivalent job as ENTER LCOL on the rightmost column. _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER RULER inserts between the line on which the cursor stands and the one above, a 'ruler' that numbers the screen columns and indicates the limits of left and right margins and tab settings. On this help file it looks like this: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789 <---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---> That is, the leftmost column is indicated by '<', the rightmost by '>' and the tab positions by '|'. The 'ruler' appears within a marked range so that when you've finished with it ENTER D should make it go away. _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER JJ performs full justification on a block of text in a marked range; that is, the first and last characters on each line (except the last lines of paragraphs) are aligned with the leftmost and rightmost columns respectively--as in this help file. The way that the procedure works at the moment is quite simple: the command first of all eliminates all redundant spces from the marked range (as in ENTER GOBBLE), it then carries out the same actions as ENTER J to tidy text, and finally inserts into each line at equal intervals sufficient spaces to align the last character with the rightmost column. It could be made more intelligent--for example by trying to put spaces after punctuation where it can--but unless there is some demand for this, the programming effort does not seem all that worth while at the moment. ENTER JJP works like ENTER JP except that the current paragraph is fully justified. ENTER GOBBLE removes redundant spaces from a block of text in a marked range: no more than one space is allowed between two non-space characters. Leading spaces at the beginnings of lines are left intact, hence paragraph indentations won't be altered. The command is intended as an antidote to ENTER JJ; however, it may not return text to exactly the same form as it was before the ENTER JJ command: if, for example, you are in the habit of inserting two spaces after a full stop (a familiar convention) you will lose one of these. Since ENTER J (and ENTER JJ, which uses it) will remove redundant spaces after full stops in some instances, it might be better to single space in any case.) _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER AL, ENTER AR, and ENTER AC are commands that align in various ways individual lines in a marked range. ENTER AL (mnemonic ALIGN LEFT). moves all the lines of text in a marked range so that the first character of each is aligned on the leftmost column. ENTER AR (mnemonic ALIGN RIGHT). moves all lines of text in a marked range so that its last character of each is aligned on the rightmost column. ENTER AC (mnemonic ALIGN CENTRE). moves all lines of text in a marked range so that each is centred between the leftmost and rightmost columns. _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER BL, ENTER BR, and ENTER BC are commands that align as a unit the whole block of text in a marked range (unlike ENTER AL, etc, which move the individual lines). ENTER BL <n> (mnemonic BLOCK LEFT), where <n> is a number, moves a block of text in a marked range that number of columns to the left. The command will allow you to move text beyond the leftmost column if there is room on the screen; if there is not enough room it is moved as far as it will go (hence you can do things like ENTER 999). If the command is used without an argument, the block is moved to the left by a single column. ENTER BR <n> (mnemonic BLOCK RIGHT), where <n> is a number, moves a block of text in a marked range that number of columns to the right. If the command is used without an argument, the block is moved to the right by a single column. ENTER BC (mnemonic BLOCK CENTRE) moves a block of text in a marked range so that each is centred between the leftmost and rightmost columns. _____________________________________________________________________________ ENTER OVER (mnemonic OVERLAY). overlays one block of text upon another. I'll call the text that does the overlaying the 'overtext' and the text that is overlaid the 'undertext'. Then if the following is the undertext: Mary had a little lamb, Its fleece was white as snow and the following is the overtext: |JOHN | | BLACK COAL| this is the result: |JOHN had a little lamb, | |Its fleece was BLACK as COAL| That is, each character in the overtext that isn't a blank replaces the character in the equivalent position in the undertext; elsewhere the undertext remains unchanged. The command is used in the following way: the overtext is put in a marked range, the cursor is moved to the first line of the undertext, and the ENTER OVER command is issued. Then the new text should appear in place of the old undertext. If you miscalculated and the effect you get is not what you were hoping for, all is not lost: the old undertext is stored in vveddump and can be brought back by ENTER Y. (See help YANK) (NB The command won't let you overlay a text upon itelf.) _____________________________________________________________________________ Although these commands were principally intended for use on text files (most of them to make the construction of tables easier), several (such as AL and BL) may also be found useful for program files. See HELP * PAGE for information about pagination.