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HELP CCOMP (Unix only)                                 A.Sloman Aug 1988

    <ENTER> ccomp
    <ENTER> ccomp <file>
    <ENTER> ccomp <file1> <file2> <file3> ..

Compile and run C programs from a Ved buffer, and read output into a
temporary Ved file.

Optional flags:
    -i          run program interactively (output not saved in Ved)
    -c          compile only to object files
    -S          produce assembler output
    -lm         use the math library (for sqrt, sin, cos, etc)
    -o <name>   use <name> for the executable file

Other options described in MAN * CC may also be used.

         CONTENTS - (Use <ENTER> g to access required sections)

  1   Overview
  2   Compiling and running a single file
  3   Multiple file names
  4   Optional flags: -i, -c, -o, -S
  5   Specifying the executable image using -o
  6   Default executable image name
  7   Producing only object files using the -c flag
  8   Use of maths library, with -lm
  9   Running your progam interactively using -i
 10   Linking a set of .o files
 11   Renaming of image files
 12   User assignable defaults: ccomp_command, ccomp_pre, and ccomp_post
 13   Use a sub-directory
 14   Related Poplog documentation
 15   Related Unix "man" files

1  Overview

    <ENTER> ccomp

This command will compile and run a C program, and if it is non-
interactive, will then read the output (if there is any) into a Ved
buffer. It makes use of the Unix cc command, to invoke the C
preprocessor, compiler, and if necessary the linker ld.

Interactive programs need the -i flag and are treated differently.

As with the Unix cc command, <ENTER> ccomp provides the option, using
the -c flag, to compile C programs to object files only without linking
them into executable images; and the option, using the -S flag, to
translate to Unix assembler.

It also provides the option to take object files, or a mixture of source
files and object files, and invoke the linker to produce an executable

There is a similar facility for Fortran (f77) programs, <ENTER> fcomp,
described in HELP * FCOMP.

2  Compiling and running a single file

<ENTER> ccomp can be given as argument a file whose name ends in .c and
contains a C program.

If no argument is given the current file is assumed, which should be a C
program file (with suffix .c).

Unless the -i flag is provided, any output, including compiler error
messages, will be put into a temporary Ved file.

3  Multiple file names

If several file names ending in .c are present they are all compiled.

Whether they are linked or not will depend on whether the -c flag is

Files with names ending in .c are taken to be C program files. Files
with names ending in .o are taken to be object files (which may have
been produced by other compilers).

4  Optional flags: -i, -c, -o, -S

The following optional flags may be included among the arguments:

    -i      means that an interactive program will be produced, so
            that Ved can't just run it and store the output in a

    -c      means that only object files (.o files) should be
            produced, without being linked into an executable image.

    -o followed by a file name, indicates the name of the
            the executable image, i.e. the output of the linker.

    -S      translate to assmbler file, with name ending in .s.

Note: the -c and -S flags are incompatible with the -i flag and the -o
flag, since they both require the linker to produce a runnable image,
whereas the -c and -S flags suppress this.

5  Specifying the executable image using -o

Normally, if an executable image is created, the default name given by
the linker is a.out. However, <ENTER> ccomp, like the Unix cc command,
allows the user to specify the name of the output file via the -o flag.

If part of the argument line is of the form:

    -o <file>

Then <file> is taken as the name of the output file, i.e. the executable
file produced. E.g.

    <ENTER> ccomp -i foo.c -o runfoo

Will compile foo.c, creating the executable file runfoo, which will then
be run in "interactive" mode. (See below).

6  Default executable image name

If the -o flag is not used, then <ENTER> ccomp will try to work out a
suitable name for the executable image, as follows.

If there is only one file name given, then that name less the suffix .c,
or if no file name is given then the name of the current file less the
suffix .c is used for the output file. (If the only file name given ends
in .o then that less the suffix will be used.)

If several file names to be compiled are given, and the -o flag is not
used to indicate the output name, then if an executable image is
produced it will be called a.out - the Unix default name.

7  Producing only object files using the -c flag

<ENTER> ccomp -c
    If the current file is called foo.c, this will compile an object
    file called foo.o

<ENTER> ccomp -c foo.c
    This will do the same.

<ENTER> ccomp -c foo.c baz.c grum.c
    Compiles all three files, producing foo.o, baz.o, grum.o

The .o files may later be linked together, as explained below.

<ENTER> ccomp -c *.c
    Compiles all .c files in the current directory, producing
    corresponding .o files.

If the -c flag is not included, then <ENTER> ccomp will attempt to link
the program and run it, with output going into a Ved file.

8  Use of maths library, with -lm

There are several mathematical functions (e.g. sin, cos, sqrt, exp, log,
etc.) provided in the maths library /usr/lib/libm.a. For a full list see
the Unix manual page man -s3m intro.

These functions can be used only if the compiler is given the -lm flag,
to the RIGHT of the name of the .c or .o file that accesses the
functions, e.g. the following will work:

    <ENTER> ccomp myprog.c -lm
    <ENTER> ccomp *.c -lm -o myprog
    <ENTER> ccomp *.c -o myprog -lm

The following will not work:

    <ENTER> ccomp -lm myprog.c

Every .c file using these functions should have, at the top:

    #include <math.h>

so that the relevant identifiers are declared.

If you wish to see what declarations are given, use Ved to look at the
file /usr/include/math.h

9  Running your progam interactively using -i

If the flag -i occurs in the argument, then the file is assumed to
define an interactive program, and when the program is run the screen is
re-set, and output is not read back into Ved.

The cursor is put at the bottom of the screen, and the interaction
continues till the program finishes. After that Ved will as usual say

WARNING: If you write an interactive program, and compile and link it
using <ENTER> ccomp, without giving the -i flag, then when the program
is run it will sit and wait for input which cannot be provided, and you
will have to use the interrupt key.

Note if you produce an interactive program and want to run it and keep a
log file with the interaction, then you can use the Unix script
facility, described in MAN * SCRIPT.

10  Linking a set of .o files

<ENTER> ccomp foo.o baz.o grum.o -o runnit

This will link the (previously compiled) files foo.o, baz.o and grum.o
into an executable file called runnit, and then will run the program,
saving any output in a Ved file. If it is an interactive program then
the -i flag must be included, e.g.

<ENTER> -i ccomp foo.o baz.o grum.o -o runnit

As before, except that the program is run interactively, and output goes
to the terminal, not a Ved file.

In the above formats it is possible to include one or more .c files.
they will be compiled as needed, and the resulting object files linked
to the pre-existing object files to create a runnable image.

11  Renaming of image files

WARNING: If the output file is to be called test and there is already an
old file of that name, it is re-named as test-. The program prints a
warning, in case the file needs to be saved. If you run <ENTER> ccomp
again, the most recent output file will be named test- and any earlier
version will be lost forever.

For this reason the program pauses for two seconds to warn you that the
file is being renamed. You can interrupt during that time if you want to
save the file.

This warning and pause can be suppressed by doing:

    false -> ccomp_chatty;

12  User assignable defaults: ccomp_command, ccomp_pre, and ccomp_post

The user-assignable variable ccomp_command specifies the name of the C
compiler to run. Its default value is 'cc'. If, for example, you want
<ENTER> ccomp to use the GNU C compiler, do:

    'gcc' -> ccomp_command;

before (auto)loading LIB * VED_CCOMP.

The variables ccomp_pre and ccomp_post may be used to specify extra
options to be inserted into the command given to the C compiler. The
following specifications apply only if the identifiers are not false,
and hold strings:

ccomp_pre   The contents of this string will be inserted after the
            value of ccomp_command and before all the other arguments.

ccomp_post  The contents of this string will be inserted after all the
            other arguments to the C compiler.

So, for example if you always want to include one of your .o files
defining various utilities, always use the M68881 floating point
co-procoessor, and always want to use the C maths library you could do
the following:

    '-fM68881 mylib.o' -> ccomp_pre;
    '-lm' -> ccomp_post;

The output file created by <ENTER> ccomp will show the effect, since it
includes the command string created.

13  Use a sub-directory

A good way to reduce the risk of output files created by <ENTER> ccomp
(and 'cc') overwriting other files, is to develop all your C programs in
a special sub-directory.

14  Related Poplog documentation

    - describes a similar mechanism for compiling and running fortran
    (f77) programs from Ved.

    - explains the use of vedpipein and pipein, used to define ved_ccomp
    and ved_fcomp.

    - "immediate mode" interaction with csh or sh via a Ved buffer. For
    experienced users this may be more convenient than using ved_ccomp
    or ved_fcomp.

To examine the source code: SHOWLIB * VED_CCOMP.

15  Related Unix "man" files


--- C.unix/help/ccomp
--- Copyright University of Sussex 1988. All rights reserved.